SURVEILLANCE AND ECOLOGY OF MOSQUITO, BITING AND FILTH BREEDING INSECTS
Location: Mosquito and Fly Research Unit
Title: STANDARD METHODS FOR TESTING MOSQUITO REPELLENTS
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: March 1, 2006
Publication Date: October 1, 2006
Citation: Barnard, D.R., Bernier, U.R., Xue, R., Klun, J., Debboun, M. 2006. Standard methods for testing mosquito repellents. Book Chapter.
Biological assays (bioassay) comprise the set of methods and techniques that are used to determine the biological activity of mosquito repellents in the laboratory and the field. An array of repellent bioassay systems has been developed in the preceding 50 years, although the various methods do not all derive from the same conceptual basis. As a result, some bioassay methods measure the one-time response of mosquitoes to a single dose of repellent whereas others are used to estimate percent repellency or the length of time a repellent provides complete protection from mosquito bites. Scientists at the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida and the ARS Chemicals Affecting Insect Behavior Research Laboratory, Beltsville, MD were invited to prepare a book chapter for CRC Press that enumerates the different repellent bioassay methods presently in use and to discuss each method in terms of its impact on mosquito behavior and/or the accuracy/reliability of the results provide. The chapter comprises six sections including an introduction and references. Topics include discussion of standardized methods for the biological assay of mosquito repellents in the laboratory and field as published by the American Society for Testing and Materials and the World Health Organization, as well as draft repellent test guidelines developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Emphasis is placed on the need for procedural consistency, regardless of the bioassay method that is used, and for careful rearing and handling of mosquito specimens.