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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Nitrogen Contribution of Peanut Residue to Cotton in a Conservation Tillage System

Authors
item Meso, Bernard - DECEASED
item Balkcom, Kipling
item Wood, C - AUBURN UNIVERSITY
item Adams, J - DECEASED

Submitted to: Journal of Plant Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 20, 2006
Publication Date: July 1, 2007
Citation: Meso, B., Balkcom, K.S., Wood, C.W., Adams, J.F. 2007. Nitrogen contribution of peanut residue to cotton in a conservation tillage system. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 30:1153-1165.

Interpretive Summary: Crops that produce their own N, particularly winter annuals, have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops. This study, conducted by researchers from the National Soil Dynamics Laboratory and cooperators from the Agronomy and Soils Department at Auburn University assessed the N contribution of peanut residue to a cotton crop in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam at Headland, AL during the 2003-2005 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and N fertilizer application rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 lb ac-1) applied in fall and spring. Peanut residue did not affect any measured variables including seed cotton yields, leaf N concentrations, or plant N uptake for either growth stage or year of the experiment. Seed cotton yields and plant parameters measured at 1st square and mid-bloom responded to spring N applications, but the recommended 90 lb N ac-1 did not maximize yields. Our results indicate that peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to a succeeding cotton crop, however, retaining residue on the soil surface provides other benefits to soils in the southeastern US.

Technical Abstract: Leguminous crops, particularly winter annuals, have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops. Previous research also highlights the benefits of utilizing summer annual legumes in rotation with non-leguminous crops. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsitum L.) crop in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults) at Headland, AL during the 2003-2005 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with main plots of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and subplots as N application rates (0, 34, 67 and 101 kg ha-1) applied in fall and spring. Peanut residue did not influence seed cotton yields, leaf N concentrations, or plant N uptake for either growth stage or year of the experiment. There was a trend for peanut residue to increase whole plant biomass measured at 1st square in two of three years. Seed cotton yields and plant parameters measured at 1st square and mid-bloom responded favorably to spring N applications, but the recommended 101 kg N ha-1 did not maximize yields. Our results indicate that peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to a succeeding cotton crop, however, retaining residue on the soil surface provides other benefits to soils in the southeastern US.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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