Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 10, 2006
Publication Date: September 10, 2006
Citation: Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, 2006 R.E. Antimicrobial wine formulations against the foodborne pathogens escherichia coli O157: H7 and salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Science 71(7):245-251 Interpretive Summary: We examined the antimicrobial activities of several plant essential oils and oil compounds in Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and Sherry wines against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. The wine formulations exhibited high activities at low concentrations of added antimicrobials. The added botanicals appear to enhance the antibiotic effects of the wines. Exploratory studies with mixtures of two antimicrobials indicate that the effects were additive. Wines appear to be useful vehicles (solvents) for plant-derived antimicrobial formulations. Because the formulations were tested under laboratory conditions, additional studies are needed on their effectiveness, compatibility, sensory properties, and safety in various applications. These include potential uses as antimicrobial rinses and sprays for contaminated surfaces of fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, and nonfood items such as meat cutting boards as well as in therapy of infectious diseases.
Technical Abstract: We developed wine formulations containing plant essential oils and oil compounds effective against foodborne pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, as well as an HPLC method to determine maximum solubility of antimicrobials in wines. Activities of Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and Sherry wines were evaluated by determining the reduction in the % of colony-forming unit (CFU) versus pH-matched controls. Activity was greater for S. enterica than for E. coli and was affected by the pH and ethanol content of the wines. Activity of essential oils (cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, and thyme) and oil compounds (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral, and thymol) in wines were evaluated in terms of % of the sample that resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of bacteria (BA50). The ranges of activities in wines (30 min BA50 values) against S. Enterica/E. coli were: carvacrol, 0.0059-0.010/0.011-0.021; oregano oils, 0.0079-0.014/0.022-0.031; cinnamaldehyde, 0.030-0.051/0.098-0.13; citral, 0.033-0.038/0.060-0.070; lemon grass oil, 0.053-0.066/0.059-0.071; cinnamon oil 0.038-0.057/0.066-0.098; thymol, 0.0086-0.010/0.016-0.022; and thyme oil, 0.0097-0.011/0.033-0.039. The wine formulations exhibited high activities at low concentrations of added antimicrobials. They can be used to reduce pathogens in food and other environments.