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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: The Effect of Manure and N Rates on Corn Yield and Salt and Nitrate Movement in the Soil under Furrow and Drip Irrigation in the Arkansas River Valley

Authors
item Berrada, A - CSU, ROCKY FORD, CO
item Halvorson, Ardell
item Bartolo, M - CSU, ROCKY FORD, CO
item Valliant, J - CSU, ROCKY FORD, CO

Submitted to: Proceedings Great Plains Soil Fertility Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 9, 2006
Publication Date: March 7, 2006
Citation: Berrada, A., Halvorson, A.D., Bartolo, M., Valliant, J. 2006. The effect of manure and n rates on corn yield and salt and nitrate movement in the soil under furrow and drip irrigation in the arkansas river valley. Proceedings 2006 Great Plains Soil Fertility Conference, Denver, CO, March 7-8, 2006. Kansas State University, Manhattan and Potash and Phosphate Institute, Brookings, SD. 11-264-269.

Interpretive Summary: A field experiment was conducted at the Arkansas Valley Research Center (AVRC) in 2005 to evaluate the effects of irrigation type and scheduling and fertilizer rate on corn yield and salts and NO3-N movement in the soil profile. Four N fertilizer rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 lb N/a) and four manure rates (10, 20, and 30 t/a) under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) and furrow irrigation (FrI) with two irrigation scheduling regimes (full and deficit irrigation) were compared. The results show no significant difference in corn yield between SDI and FrI, even though nearly twice as much water was applied with FrI than with SDI. Deficit irrigation decreased corn yields when water was withheld during two critical growth stages, silking and milk. Corn did not respond to N fertilizer rates beyond 60 lb N/a under deficit irrigation, while 30 t manure/a depressed the yield due to stand loss. Under full irrigation, the highest yield was obtained with 180 lb N/a which was more than the recommended rate of 120 lb N/a. Manure application increased soil salinity levels, which contributed to a decrease in plant population with increasing manure rate. Salinity issues need to be investigated further. Higher ECe values were observed at the 4- to 6-ft. depth under SDI than under FrI, probably because of greater leaching with the FrI system.

Technical Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Arkansas Valley Research Center (AVRC) in 2005 to test the effects of irrigation type and scheduling and fertilizer rate on corn yield and salts and NO3-N movement in the soil profile. Four N fertilizer rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 lb N/a) and four manure rates (10, 20, and 30 t/a) under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) and furrow irrigation (FrI) with two irrigation scheduling regimes (full and deficit irrigation) were compared. The results show no significant difference in corn yield between SDI and FrI, even though nearly twice as much water was applied with FrI than with SDI. Deficit irrigation decreased corn yields since water was withheld during two critical growth stages, silking and milk. Corn did not respond to N fertilizer rates beyond 60 lb N/a under deficit irrigation, while 30 t manure/a depressed the yield due to stand loss. Under full irrigation, the highest yield was obtained with 180 lb N/a which was more than the recommended rate of 120 lb N/a. Manure application increased soil salinity levels, which contributed to the decrease in plant population with increasing manure rate. Salinity issues need to be investigated further. Higher ECe values were observed at the 4- to 6-ft. depth under SDI than under FrI, probably because of greater leaching with the FrI system.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014