Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Literature Review
Publication Acceptance Date: April 28, 2007
Publication Date: July 28, 2007
Citation: Anderson, R.A. 2007. Chromium: Roles in the Regulation of Lean Body Mass and Body Weight. In: Scientific Evidence for Musculoskeletal, Bariatric, and Sports Nutritiion, ed. Ingrid Kohlstadt, Taylor and Frances, NY, NY. pp175-189, 2007. Technical Abstract: Chromium is an essential trace mineral present in human tissues at concentrations less than 1/100th that of iron. These are concentrations so small that only recent technologic advances have made measurements possible. Chromium influences specific enzymes in the insulin signaling pathway that lead to increased insulin sensitivity. Insufficient Cr is associated with insulin resistance, resulting in gradual, unfavorable changes in body composition. Evidence suggests that while Cr intake may have only decreased slightly in the recent decades, the body's demand has increased appreciably due to modern-day stressors and refined carbohydrates which increase Cr losses. Patients on prednisone, persons with insulin resistance and persons experiencing physical stress have demonstrated benefits from additional Cr intake. There is no established upper limit for the supplemental Cr since it has very low toxicity and there have been no documented negative side effects in any of the more than 30 human studies.