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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Current status of BTV in the Americas

Authors
item Wilson, William
item Mecham, James
item Schmidtmann, Edward
item Sanchez, Carlos - E DE MV, COSTA RICA
item Herrero, Marco - E DE MV, COSTA RICA
item Lager, Irene - INST DE VIROL, ARGENTINA

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: April 22, 2005
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in the Americas is important not only because of the direct impact on the livestock industry due to disease, but more importantly because of the economic impact due to international trade restrictions. North, Central and South America are geographically separate but have some overlap in terms of BTV serotypes and the biting midge species that transmit them. Distinct groups of BTV serotypes are found in North America, Central America and South America. Only BTV type is common to all three regions. The distribution of biting midge or gnat species also varies between the three continents. In North America, the primary proven vector species for BTV is one species and a second species has also been implicated as a vector of BTV in the United States (U.S.), Culicoides insignis, is found primarily in southern Florida, but can extend as far north as Alabama. The second gnat species is the presumptive primary vector in Central and South America. Another species may also be a vector for BTV in South America. Although Central America shares a common vector and several common type of BTV with North and South America, there are three BTV types that are unique to this region. This chapter will discuss the disease prevalence in domestic and wild ruminants, current status of BTV types in the Americas, status of the biting midge species that transmit BTV, economic impact, and control strategies for each continent. The relevance of virus-vector interactions on the epidemiology of bluetongue in the Americas is discussed.

Technical Abstract: The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in the Americas is important not only because of the direct impact on the livestock industry due to disease, but more importantly because of the economic impact due to international trade restrictions. North, Central and South America are geographically separate but have some overlap in terms of BTV serotypes and the biting midge species that transmit them. Distinct groups of BTV serotypes are found in North America (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17), Central America and the Caribbean basin (1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 17) and in South America (4, 6, 12, 14, 17, 19 and 20). Only BTV serotype 17 is common to all three regions. The distribution of Culicoides species also varies between the three continents. In North America, the primary proven vector species for BTV is Culicoides sonorensis. A second species that has also been implicated as a vector of BTV in the United States (U.S.), Culicoides insignis, is found primarily in southern Florida, but can extend as far north as Alabama. In Central and South America, the primary vector for BTV is C. insignis; although, C. pusilus may also be a vector for BTV in South America. Although Central America shares a common vector and several common serotypes of BTV with North and South America, there are three BTV serotypes that are unique to this region. This chapter will discuss the disease prevalence in domestic and wild ruminants, current status of BTV types in the Americas, status of the biting midge species that transmit BTV, economic impact, and control strategies for each continent. The relevance of virus-vector interactions on the epidemiology of bluetongue in the Americas is discussed.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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