Title: Solvent Retention Capacity Values in Relation to Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties and Straight-Dough Breadmaking Quality Authors
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 7, 2006
Publication Date: September 1, 2006
Citation: Xiao, Z.S., Park, S., Chung, O.K., Caley, M.S., Seib, P.A. 2006. Solvent retention capacity values in relation to hard winter wheat and flour properties and straight-dough breadmaking quality. Cereal Chem. 83(5):465-471. Interpretive Summary: The demand for rapid and reliable tests is increasing in the wheat industry, especially at the marketing channels. In addition, the demand of breeding programs for early generation screen, which requires test methods that need only a small amount of sample, has been increased because of saving time and expenses. The solvent retention capacity (SRC) test needs only 5 g of flours and has been used to evaluate the qualities of soft wheat flour for making cookies and crackers. Our research objectives were to investigate the relationships between SRC values and quality parameters of hard winter wheat and flour, and to identify the suitability of SRC test for use in prediction of loaf volume and crumb grain score. The SRC tests showed high correlations with many hard winter wheat and flour quality parameters. The 5% lactic acid SRC test was highly correlated with loaf volume followed by protein content. Our results suggested that 5% lactic acid SRC test has a capability to differentiate the quality of protein in relation to loaf volume even with similar protein content flours.
Technical Abstract: Solvent retention capacity (SRC) was investigated in assessing the end-use quality of hard winter wheat (HWW). The four SRC values of 116 HWW flours were determined using 5% lactic acid, 50% sucrose, 5% sodium carbonate, and distilled water. The SRC values were greatly affected by wheat and flour protein contents, and showed significant linear correlations with 1,000-kernel weight and single kernel weight, size, and hardness. The 5% lactic acid SRC value showed the highest correlation (r = 0.83, P<0.0001) with straight-dough bread volume, followed by 50% sucrose, and least by distilled water. We found that the 5% lactic acid SRC value differentiated the quality of protein relating to loaf volume. When we selected a set of flours that had a narrow range of protein content between 12-13% (n = 37) from the 116 flours, flour protein content was not significantly correlated with loaf volume. The 5% lactic acid SRC value, however, showed a significant correlation (r = 0.84, P<0.0001) with loaf volume. The 5% lactic acid SRC value was significantly correlated with SDS-sedimentation volume (r = 0.83, P<0.0001). The SDS-sedimentation test showed a similar capability to 5% lactic acid SRC, correlating significantly with loaf volume for flours with similar protein content (r = 0.72, P<0.0001). Prediction models for loaf volume were derived from a series of wheat and flour quality parameters. The inclusion of 5% lactic acid SRC values in the prediction model improved R2 of 0.778 and root mean square error (RMSE) of 57.2 from R2 of 0.609 and RMSE of 75.6, respectively, from the prediction model developed with Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) and near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy data. The prediction models were tested with three validation sets having different protein ranges, and confirmed that 5% lactic acid SRC test is valuable in predicting the loaf volume of bread from a HWW flour, especially for flours with similar protein contents.