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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Comparison of Quality Characteristics and Breadmaking Functionality of Hard Red Winter and Hard Red Spring Wheat

Authors
item Maghirang, Elizabeth
item Lookhart, George
item Bean, Scott
item Pierce, R - USDA, GIPSA, FGIS
item Xie, Feng - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
item Caley, Margo
item Wilson, Jeff
item Seabourn, Bradford
item Chung, Okkyung
item Dowell, Floyd

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 7, 2006
Publication Date: September 1, 2006
Repository URL: http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/11912/PDF
Citation: Maghirang, E.B., Lookhart, G.L., Bean, S., Pierce, R.O., Xie, F., Caley, M.S., Wilson, J.D., Seabourn, B.W., Chung, O.K., Dowell, F.E. 2006. Comparison of quality characteristics and breadmaking functionality of hard red winter and hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry. Vol. 83(5):520-528.

Interpretive Summary: Some grain industry groups claim that hard red spring (HRS) wheat has superior breadmaking qualities than hard red winter (HRW) wheat, yet results from previous researchers gave conflicting conclusions. Results from this study of 43 quality factors showed that only eight factors - test weight, moisture content, kernel size, polyphenol oxidase content, average gluten index, % insoluble polymeric protein, loaf volume adjusted for protein content, and mixing tolerance, were found to be the same between both classes. Some of the quality characteristics that had significantly higher levels in HRS wheat than in HRW wheat samples included protein content, flour yield, bread crumb grain score, and other protein-dependent parameters such as sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation volume, average total gluten, baking water absorption, and loaf volume. When HRW and HRS wheat samples were grouped to be within the same wheat protein content range (11.4 to 15.8%), the average value of most other grain and bread-making quality characteristics were the same for both wheat classes. Values that were still better for HRS wheat were protein quality, dough properties, water absorption, loaf volume, and crumb score. These results help explain the quality differences between HRS and HRW wheat, and may help the grain industry target HRS and HRW wheat for specific markets.

Technical Abstract: Various whole-kernel, milling, flour, dough, and breadmaking quality parameters were compared between hard red winter (HRW) and hard red spring (HRS) wheat. From the 43 quality parameters evaluated, only eight quality characteristics - test weight, moisture content, kernel size, polyphenol oxidase content, average gluten index, % insoluble polymeric protein, loaf volume adjusted for protein content, and mixograph tolerance were found to be the same. Some of the quality characteristics that had significantly higher levels in HRS wheat than in HRW wheat samples included protein content, flour yield, bread crumb grain score, and other protein-dependent parameters such as sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation volume, average total gluten, baking water absorption, and loaf volume. When HRW and HRS wheat samples were grouped to be within the same wheat protein content range (11.4 to 15.8%), the average value of most other grain and bread-making quality characteristics were the same for both wheat classes. Values that were significantly higher for HRW wheat were color b* and farinograph tolerance. Values that were higher for HRS wheat were mg insoluble polymeric proteins, mg gliadins, mixograph time, alveograph configuration ratio, and crumb score. Test of homogeneity of intercepts showed HRS wheat had higher water absorption, loaf volume, and SDS sedimentation volume.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014