Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 17, 2006
Publication Date: June 1, 2006
Citation: Neven, L.G., Rehfield, L.M. 2006. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of western cherry fruit fly in sweet cherries. J. Econ. Entomol. 99(3): 658-663. Interpretive Summary: Western cherry fruit fly is an internal feeding pest of sweet cherries in the United States. This pest is the focus of many quarantine restrictions within states, between states, and to international trading partners. Many countries require that U.S. sweet cherries be fumigated with methyl bromide to prevent the accidental introduction of this pest. However, fumigation is not in compliance with U.S. organic standards. We have developed two non-chemical quarantine treatments to control western cherry fruit fly. These treatments involve a short heat treatment under a low oxygen and elevated carbon dioxide environment. We were unable to delineate a fruit fly stage most tolerant to the treatment. We were able to demonstrate that the two treatments killed over 5,000 western cherry fruit flies in sweet cherries. These treatments may be used to provide quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where Western cherry fruit fly is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.
Technical Abstract: Non-chemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control western cherry fruit fly in sweet cherries. The two treatments developed use a chamber temperature of 45°C for 45 minutes and a chamber temperature of 47°C for 25 minutes under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2°C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of western cherry fruit fly while preserving commodity market quality. There was no definitive egg or larval stage which was demonstrated to be the most tolerant to either CATTS (Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment System) treatment. Efficacy tests for both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of over 5,000 western cherry fruit flies in each treatment. These treatments may provide, with further study, quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where Western cherry fruit fly is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.