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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Germplasm Collection Management and Evaluation for Trait Utilization Genetic Resources of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Crops

Authors
item Brenner, David - ISU
item Ayala-Silva, Tomas
item Hellier, Barbara
item Hummer, Kim
item Jenderek, Maria
item Fredrick Marek, Laura - ISU
item Morris, John
item Nelson, Randall
item Reitsma, K - ISU
item Robertson, Larry
item Stieve, Susan - OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
item Stover, Ed
item Widrlechner, Mark

Submitted to: American Society of Agronomy Meetings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2005
Publication Date: November 7, 2005
Citation: Brenner, D.M., Ayala Silva, T., Hellier, B.C., Hummer, K.E., Jenderek, M.M., Fredrick Marek, L., Morris, J.B., Nelson, R.L., Reitsma, K.R., Robertson, L.D., Stieve, S.M., Stover, E.W., Widrlechner, M.P. 2005. Germplasm collection management and evaluation for trait utilization genetic resources of omega-3 fatty acid crops. American Society of Agronomy Meetings.

Technical Abstract: At least ten crops are contending for a new commercial category as sources of omega-3 fatty acids for healthful dietary supplements. The omega-3 fatty acid generally harvested from plants is: alpha-linolenic acid, also known as ALA, aLnA, C18:3n-3, 18:3-Delta-9c12c15c, or cis-9cis-12cis-15 octadecatrienoic acid. Fish oils are also commercially available sources for omega-3 including the forms eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6 which are rare in plant sources. These ten omega-3 crops are commercially developed to the stage that they can be purchased from internet sites by searching for the crop name + "omega-3": black currant (Ribes), borage, (Borago), chia (Salvia), flax (Linum), hemp (Cannabis), perilla (Perilla), purslane (Portulaca), pumpkin (Cucurbita), walnut (Juglans), and wheat germ (Triticum). In addition to commercial omega-3 crops the following plant genera have at least one report of omega-3 at high levels; with more than 30% of the seed comprised of an oil containing more than 30% omega-3 in the fatty acids: Agrimonia, Aleurites, Arabis, Calamintha, Calocedrus, Cryptantha, Descurainia, Euphorbia, Helleborus, Lallemantia, Malcolmia, Micromeria, Nicotiana, Odontites, Phyllanthus, Plukenetia, Saloa, Saxifraga, Tetradium, and Thuja. Many conventional leafy vegetables contain some Omega-3 but purslane, watercress (Nasturtium) and mint (Mentha) have higher concentrations than most foliage sources. The following conventional crops have Omega-3 at moderate concentrations, avocado (Persea), canola (Brassica), sesame (Sesamum), and soybean (Glycine); and they are frequently included on popular lists of omega-3 sources.

Last Modified: 7/22/2014