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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effects of peanut cropping practices and canopy cover conditions on runoff and sediment yield

Authors
item Truman, Clinton
item Williams, Randall

Submitted to: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 1, 2001
Publication Date: January 1, 2001
Citation: Truman, C.C., Williams, R.G. 2001. Peanut cropping-tillage system effects on runoff and sediment yield. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Society. 56:152-159.

Interpretive Summary: The majority of runoff and sediment lost during a year from agricultural fields usually occurs from a small number of rainfall events a year. These rainfall events are usually associated with high soil water conditions and bare soil surfaces. Runoff and sediment were measured from 8 field plots to determine the effect of peanut cropping-tillage practices and canopy cover conditions on runoff and sediment loss. Plots were located on a Tifton loamy sand and were exposed to four 30 min. simulated rainfall events with an intensity of 64 mm/h. Sediment and runoff were measured from 4 soil cover conditions: continuous fallow, bare-bedded, single row peanuts and twin row peanuts. Percent cover and leaf-area index increased to a maximum then leveled off as plants matured or were harvested and both were related to days since planting. Single and twin row peanut plots had as much as 9 times less runoff and as much as 63 times less sediment loss than bare soil conditions. Speed at which the peanut canopy covers the soil surface influences runoff and soil loss. Twin row peanuts had as much as 3 times less runoff and sediment loss than 2-row peanuts. Event based erodibilities ranged from 2-36 and averaged 12 kg ha h/MJ/ha/mm. Soil loss was lowest for cropstage 3 when percent canopy was greatest. Results show the importance of maximizing peanut canopy development early in the growing season reducing runoff and soil loss, thus conserving valuable natural resources.

Technical Abstract: Runoff and sediment were measured from eight field plots to determine the effect of peanut cropping-tillage practices and canopy cover conditions on runoff and sediment loss. Plots were located on a Tifton loamy sand and were exposed to four 30 min. simulated rainfall events with an intensity of 64 mm/h. Sediment and runoff were measured from 4 soil cover conditions: continuous fallow, bare-bedded, single row peanuts and twin ro peanuts. Percent cover (PC) and leaf area index (LAI) increased to a n maximum and then leveled off as plants matured or were harvested. PC for single and twin row peanuts were related to days since plantings (R**2 = 0.92 and 0.97, respectively). LAI values for single and twin row peanuts were related to PC (R**2=0.96 and 0.89, respectively). Single and twin row peanut plots had as much as 9 times less runoff and as much as 63 times less sediment than continuous fallow or bare-bedded plots. The twin row peanuts had as much as 3 times less runoff and sediment loss than single row peanuts. Event based erodibilities ranged from 2-36 and averaged 12 kg ha h/MJ/ha/mm. Soil loss ratios ranged from 0.01-2.61 and were lowest for cropstage 3 when percent canopy was greatest. Results show the importance of maximizing peanut canopy development to protect the soil surface and reduce runoff and sediment delivery.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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