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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Vitamin K Contents of Grains, Cereals, Fast-Food Breakfasts, and Baked Goods

Authors
item Ferreira, Dan - TUFTS/HNRCA
item Haytowitz, David
item Tassinari, Michele - TUFTS/HNRCA
item Peterson, James - TUFTS/HNRCA
item Booth, Sarah - TUFTS/HNRCA

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 28, 2005
Publication Date: January 1, 2006
Citation: Ferreira, D.W., Haytowitz, D.B., Tassinari, M.A., Peterson, J.W., Booth, S.L. 2006. Vitamin K Contents of Grains, Cereals, Fast-food Breakfasts, and Baked Goods. Journal of Food Science. 71(1):S066-70.

Interpretive Summary: Accurate estimates of how much vitamin K is in the diet requires accurate food composition data for specific geographical regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of three different forms of vitamin K [phylloquinone (K1), dihydrophylloquinone (dK), and menaquinone-4 (MK-4)] in representative grains, cereals and baked goods, including breakfast foods, in the U.S. food supply. Food samples were obtained as part of United States Department of Agriculture's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Overall, breads, grains and breakfast cereals were limited sources of K1, which is the primary form of vitamin K in the U.S. diet. In contrast, processed foods, such as fast-food breakfast sandwiches and baked goods, contain wide ranges of K1 and dK, which is a form of vitamin K produced in the manufacturing of hydrogenated plant oils. Low MK-4 concentrations, which are the form of vitamin K found in animal products, were detected in meat- and cheese-containing breakfast foods, and certain pie crusts. These data suggest that processed foods that contain K1-rich plant oils are an unexpected source of K1 and dK in the U.S. food supply.

Technical Abstract: Accurate dietary assessment of vitamin K requires representative food composition data for specific geographical regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of three different forms of vitamin K [phylloquinone (K1), 2',3'-dihydrophylloquinone (dK), and menaquinone-4 (MK-4)] in representative grains, cereals and baked goods, including breakfast foods, in the U.S. food supply. Samples were obtained as part of USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program, and analyzed by HPLC. Overall, breads, grains and breakfast cereals were limited sources of K1 [range: non-detectable (ND) - 11.2 microg/100g], with a wide range in dK [range: ND – 47.0 microg/100g]. In contrast, processed foods, such as fast-food breakfast sandwiches and baked goods, contain wide ranges of K1 (0.9 - 39.3 microg/100g) and dK (ND-72.2 microg/100g). For any given food, K1 concentrations clustered within a narrow range whereas dK concentrations had a wide range for a given food, suggestive of divergent use of hydrogenated oils in the manufacturing process. Low MK-4 concentrations (1.8 - 4.0 microg/100g) were detected in meat- and cheese-containing breakfast foods, and certain pie crusts. These data suggest that processed foods that contain K1-rich plant oils are an unexpected source of K1 and dK in the U.S. food supply.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014
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