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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Tillage, Crop Rotations, and Cultural Practices Effects on Dryland Soil and Crop Residue Carbon and Nitrogen

Authors
item Sainju, Upendra
item Lenssen, Andrew
item Evans, Robert
item Caesar, Thecan
item Waddell, Jed

Submitted to: Intl Conference on Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: June 30, 2005
Publication Date: December 1, 2005
Repository URL: http://www.icsagr-fei.org/conference/2005/stcath/papers/a-sainj.doc
Citation: Sainju, U.M., Lenssen, A.W., Evans, R.G., Caesar, T., Waddell, J.T. 2005. Tillage, crop rotations, and cultural practices effects on dryland soil and crop residue carbon and nitrogen. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Agriculture for Food, Energy and Industry, August, 22-27, 2005, St. Catharines, Canada. Available online at http://www.icsagr-fei.org/conference/2005/stcath/papers/a-sainj.doc

Technical Abstract: Sustainable soil and crop management practices are needed to conserve soil C and N and to improve dryland soil quality and productivity in Northern Great Plains. The effects of two tillage [conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT)], four crop rotations [continuous spring wheat (CW), spring wheat-pea (W-P), spring wheat-barley-pea (W-B-P), and spring wheat-barley-corn-pea (W-B-C-P)], and two cultural practices [conventional (as practiced by local producers) and ecological (higher seed rates, delayed planting, wider spacing, different fertilizer placement, and straw management than in conventional practices)] were examined on dryland soil and crop residue C and N in eastern Montana in 2004. Crop residue cover, amount, and C and N contents were not influenced by tillage and cultural practices but residue cover and C content were higher in CW than in W-B-P and W-B-C-P. Soil NH4-N content at 0- to 5-cm depth was greater in ecological than in conventional practice, regardless of tillage and crop rotation, but at 5- to 20-cm it was greater in conventional than in ecological practice in NT. Soil NO3-N content at 0- to 5- and 0- to 20-cm was greater in ecological than in conventional practice in CT. Soil total N at 5- to 20- and 0- to 20-cm cm was greater in W-P than in CW in CT. Similarly, soil organic C at 5- to 20- and 0- to 20-cm was greater in conventional than in ecological practice. Crop residue and soil C and N contents varied between tillage, crop rotations, and cultural practices, probably due to quality, quantity, and rate of decomposition of crop residues in the soil.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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