Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: July 31, 2004
Publication Date: March 1, 2005
Citation: Neill, J.D. 2005. Interactions of virus and host. In: Goyal, S.M., Ridpath, J.F., editors. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Diagnosis, Management, and Control. 1st edition. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional. p. 177-196. Technical Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for producers and practitioners. The events that transpire following infection of the host animal are only now beginning to become clear. Upon entry into a susceptible host cell, the virus replicates, utilizing viral as well as cellular proteins and machinery. Our understanding of BVDV replication comes from studies of BVDV directly, or is extrapolated from studies of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and other members of the Flaviviridae, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most proteins encoded by BVDV, CSFV and HCV, as well as RNA structural motifs, are considered functionally equivalent (Rice, 1996; Branza-Nichita et al., 2001). The two exceptions are the Npro and Erns proteins that are unique to the Pestiviruses. This chapter describes functions provided by the host cell that are absolutely required for virus replication, including protein translation, protein modification, and transport and release of progeny virus. For the purposes of discussion, results from studies of other pestiviruses and flaviviruses will be discussed in context of BVDV and will be considered common to all unless results are presented that show otherwise.