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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Okra, Beets, Asparagus, Eggplant, Turnips, Green Beans, Carrots, and Cauliflower

Authors
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Chapman, Mary
item Smith, Gordon

Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 24, 2006
Publication Date: March 1, 2007
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Chapman, M.H., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by okra, beets, asparagus, eggplant, turnips, green beans, carrots, and cauliflower. Food Chemistry 103:676-680.

Interpretive Summary: The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra, beets, asparagus, eggplant, turnips, green beans, carrots, and cauliflower was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the okra 16%, beets 11%, asparagus 4%, and 1% by eggplant, turnips, green beans, carrots and cauliflower. There were significant differences in the bile acid binding for okra, beets and asparagus. These results point to the health-promoting potential of okra > beets > asparagus > eggplant = turnips = green beans = carrots = cauliflower as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Inclusion of okra and beets in our daily diet as health-promoting colorful vegetables should be encouraged.

Technical Abstract: The in vitro binding of bile acids by okra (abelmoschus esculentus), beets (beta vulgaris), asparagus (asparagus officinalis), eggplant (solanum malongena), turnips (brassica rapa rapifera), green beans (phaseolus vulgaris), carrots (daucus carota), and cauliflower (brassica oleracea botrytis) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted testing various fresh raw vegetables on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter (DM) and total dietary fiber (TDF) basis was for the okra 16 and 49%, beets 11 and 50%, asparagus 4 and 12%, eggplant 1 and 3%, turnips 1 and 5%, beans green 1 and 3%, carrots 1 and 3%, and cauliflower 1 and 2%. Bile acid binding was significantly higher for okra than beets on DM basis. For asparagus, bile acid binding was significantly lower than okra and beets and significantly higher than eggplant, turnips, beans green, carrots and cauliflower. These results point to the health-promoting potential of okra > beets > asparagus > eggplant = turnips = green beans = carrots = cauliflower as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Inclusion of okra and beets in our daily diet as health-promoting and colorful vegetables should be encouraged. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of vegetables observed herein to their healthful potential of atherosclerosis amelioration (lipid and lipoprotein-lowering) and cancer prevention (excretion of toxic metabolites).

Last Modified: 10/25/2014