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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: In Vitro Binding of Bile Acids by Spinach, Kale, Brussel Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Greens, Green Bell Pepper, Cabbage and Collards

Authors
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Chapman, Mary
item Smith, Gordon

Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 21, 2005
Publication Date: February 1, 2007
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Chapman, M.H., Smith, G.E. 2007. In vitro binding of bile acids by spinach, kale, brussel sprouts, broccoli, mustard greens, green bell pepper, cabbage and collards. Food Chemistry. 100:1531-1536.

Interpretive Summary: The in vitro binding of bile acids by spinach, kale, brussels sprouts, broccoli, mustard greens, bell pepper, cabbage and collards was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the spinach 9%, kale 8%, brussels sprouts 8%, broccoli 5%, mustard greens 4%, bell pepper 3%, cabbage 2%, and collards 2%. Bile acid binding for spinach, kale and brussels sprouts was significantly higher than broccoli, mustard greens, cabbage, bell pepper and collards. These results point to the health promoting potential of spinach = kale = brussels sprouts > broccoli = mustard greens > cabbage = bell pepper = collards as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Inclusion of spinach, kale and brussels sprouts in our daily diet as healthful dark green vegetables should be encouraged.

Technical Abstract: The in vitro binding of bile acids by spinach (spinacia oleracea), kale (brassica oleracea acephala), brussels sprouts (brassica oleracea gemmifera), broccoli (brassica oleracea italica), mustard greens (brassica juncea), peppers green (capsicum annuum), cabbage (brassica oleracea capitala) and collards (brassica oleracea acephala) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted testing various fresh raw green vegetables on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter and total dietary fiber basis was for the spinach 9 and 34%, kale 8 and 64%, brussels sprouts 8 and 29%, broccoli 5 and 19%, mustard greens 4 and 12%, peppers green 3 and 9%, cabbage 2 and 8%, and collards 2 and 5%. Bile acid binding for spinach, kale and brussels sprouts was significantly higher than broccoli and mustard greens. For broccoli and mustard greens binding values were significantly higher those for cabbage, bell pepper and collards. These results point to the health promoting potential of spinach = kale = brussels sprouts > broccoli = mustard greens > cabbage = peppers green = collards as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Inclusion of spinach, kale and brussels sprouts in our daily diet as healthful dark green vegetables should be encouraged. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of vegetables observed herein to their healthful potential of atherosclerosis amelioration (lipid and lipoprotein lowering) and cancer prevention (excretion of toxic metabolites).

Last Modified: 11/26/2014
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