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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Evidence for a Role for Anti-Mullerian Hormone in the Suppression of Follicle Activation in Mouse Ovaries and Bovine Ovarian Cortex Grafted Beneath the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors
item Gigli, I - CORNELL UNIV, ITHACA NY
item CUSHMAN, ROBERT
item Wahl, C - WELLS COLLEGE, AURORA NY
item Fortune, Joanne - CORNELL UNIV, ITHACA NY

Submitted to: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 10, 2005
Publication Date: August 20, 2005
Citation: Gigli, I., Cushman, R.A., Wahl, C.M., Fortune, J.E. 2005. Evidence for a role for anti-Mullerian hormone in the suppression of follicle activation in mouse ovaries and bovine ovarian cortex grafted beneath the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Molecular Reproduction and Development. 71(4):480-488.

Interpretive Summary: The first critical transition in follicular development, the activation of primordial follicles to leave the pool of resting follicles and begin growth, is poorly understood, but it appears that the balance between inhibitory and stimulatory factors is important in regulating the exodus of follicles from the resting pool. There is evidence that anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH; also known as MIS) inhibits follicle activation in mice, but whether it plays a similar role in nonrodent species is unknown. When pieces of bovine ovarian cortex, rich in primordial follicles, are cultured in serum-free medium, most follicles initiate growth, but when cortical pieces are grafted beneath the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos, follicle activation does not occur. Since embryonic chick gonads of both sexes produce and secrete AMH, we tested the hypothesis that AMH in the chick circulation inhibits follicle activation. In Experiment 1, whole newborn mouse ovaries were grafted beneath the CAM (placed "in ovo") or cultured in vitro for 8 days. In vitro (or after 8 days in vivo) follicles activated and proceeded to the primary or secondary stage, but activation was suppressed in ovo. This inhibition was reversed if ovaries were removed from beneath the CAM and cultured in vitro. In contrast, when ovaries from mice lacking the AMH type II receptor were CAM-grafted in Experiment 2, follicle activation occurred in a similar fashion to activation in vitro. This finding strongly implicates AMH as the inhibitor of follicle activation in ovo. Since chick embryonic gonads are the source of circulating AMH, chicks were gonadectomized in Experiment 3, prior to grafting of pieces of bovine ovarian cortex beneath their CAMs. Bovine primordial follicles activated in the gonadectomized chicks, similar to the results for mice lacking the AMH type II receptor. Taken together these experiments provide strong evidence that AMH is the inhibitor of mouse follicle activation present in the circulation of embryonic chicks and provide indirect, and hence more tentative, evidence for AMH as an inhibitor of bovine follicle activation. Therefore, AMH may be a factor that could be used in bovine ovarian cortical cultures to more tightly control oocyte growth, and improve our ability to grow bovine oocytes to competency in vitro.

Technical Abstract: The first critical transition in follicular development, the activation of primordial follicles to leave the pool of resting follicles and begin growth, is poorly understood, but it appears that the balance between inhibitory and stimulatory factors is important in regulating the exodus of follicles from the resting pool. There is evidence that anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH; also known as MIS) inhibits follicle activation in mice, but whether it plays a similar role in nonrodent species is not known. When pieces of bovine ovarian cortex, rich in primordial follicles, are cultured in serum-free medium, most follicles initiate growth, but when cortical pieces are grafted beneath the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos, follicle activation does not occur. Since embryonic chick gonads of both sexes produce and secrete high levels of AMH, the hypothesis that the AMH in the chick circulation inhibits follicle activation was tested. In Experiment 1, whole newborn mouse ovaries were grafted beneath the CAM (placed "in ovo") or cultured in vitro for 8 days. In vitro (or after 8 days in vivo) follicles activated and proceeded to the primary or secondary stage, but activation was suppressed in ovo. This inhibition was reversed if ovaries were removed from beneath the CAM and cultured in vitro. In contrast, when ovaries from mice null mutant for the AMH type II receptor were CAM-grafted in Experiment 2, follicle activation occurred in a similar fashion to activation in vitro. This finding strongly implicates AMH as the inhibitor of follicle activation in ovo. Since chick embryonic gonads are the source of circulating AMH, chicks were gonadectomized in Experiment 3, prior to grafting of pieces of bovine ovarian cortex beneath their CAMs. Bovine primordial follicles activated in the gonadectomized chicks, similar to the results for mice lacking the AMH type II receptor. Taken together these experiments provide strong evidence that AMH is the inhibitor of mouse follicle activation present in the circulation of embryonic chicks and provide indirect, and hence more tentative, evidence for AMH as an inhibitor of bovine follicle activation.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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