Submitted to: American Geophysical Union
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 18, 2005
Publication Date: April 24, 2005
Citation: Jackson, T.J. 2005. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 and 2005 results and plans [abstract]. EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 86(18), Joint Assembly Supplements, Abstract H33C-01. Technical Abstract: The Soil Moisture Experiments (SMEX) series of field campaigns was designed to address research priorities of several programs involving satellite remote sensing of surface soil moisture. These include the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR) on Aqua, the Windsat on Coriolis, and future missions that include NASAs Hydros, the European Space Agency Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NPOESS. Algorithms, scaling, technology and land-atmosphere studies have all been addressed in each experiment. Scaling is a key aspect of experiment design because of the spatial differences between ground point observations and satellite footprints. In all of the campaigns aircraft sensors have provided the critical link between these. Different geographic domains have been used to provide diverse conditions for algorithm development and validation and a variety of aircraft instruments have been used to support specific objectives. SMEX04 was conducted in August 2004 in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. It was designed to address satellite footprint heterogeneity. The region has the diverse topography, vegetation and rainfall patterns necessary to address this issue. In addition, SMEX04 was timed to coincide with North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME). A working hypothesis of NAME is that among the land surface antecedent boundary conditions that control the onset and intensity of the precipitation is soil moisture. Surface soil moisture can change dramatically after rain events. A review of SMEX04 and preliminary results will be presented. SMEX05 is being planned to understand what contributions to soil moisture retrieval and mapping may be achieved by using fully polarimetric passive microwave observations. This has not been a focus of land parameter investigations in the past. The Windsat instrument provides these measurements at several frequencies. For SMEX05 an aircraft simulator of Windsat will also be employed. The field campaign will be conducted for several weeks in the June/July period near Ames, Iowa. This region includes corn and soybean crop cover. The experiment design will be reviewed.