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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: The Soil Moisture Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (Smacex): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions and Preliminary Findings.

Authors
item Kustas, William
item Hatfield, Jerry
item Prueger, John

Submitted to: Journal of Hydrometeorology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 5, 2005
Publication Date: December 15, 2005
Citation: Kustas, W.P., Hatfield, J.L., Prueger, J.H. 2005. The Soil Moisture Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, hydrometeorological conditions and preliminary findings. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 6:791-804.

Interpretive Summary: The Soil Moisture atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the 2002 Soil Moisture Experiment (SMEX02) during June and July, 2002 near Ames, Iowa, a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 was validation of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms for existing and new prototype satellite microwave sensor systems under rapidly changing corn biomass conditions. The SMACEX study was designed to provide direct-measurement/remote sensing/modeling approaches for understanding the impact of spatial and temporal variability in vegetation cover, soil moisture and other land-surface states on turbulent flux exchange with the atmosphere. The unique data set consisting of in-situ and aircraft measurements of atmospheric, vegetation and soil properties and fluxes allows for detailed and rigorous analysis and validation of surface states and fluxes diagnosed using remote sensing methods at various scales. Research reults presented in the special issue have illuminated on the potential of satellite remote sensing algorithms for soil moisture retrieval, land surface flux estimation, and in the assimilation of surface states and diagnostically modeled fluxes into prognostic land surface models. Ground and aircraft-based remote sensing of the land surface and atmospheric boundary layer properties are used to quantify heat fluxes at the tower footprint and regional scales. Tower and aircraft-based heat and momentum fluxes are used to evaluate local and regional roughness. The spatial and temporal variations in water, energy and carbon fluxes from the tower network and aircraft under changing vegetation cover and soil moisture conditions are evaluated. An overview of the experimental site, design, data, hydrometeorological conditions and results are presented in this introduction, and serves as a preface to this special issue highlighting SMACEX results.

Technical Abstract: The Soil Moisture Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the 2002 Soil Moisture Experiment (SMEX02) during June and July, 2002, near Ames, Iowa, a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 was validation of microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms for existing and new prototype satellite microwave sensor systems under rapidly changing crop biomass conditions. The SMACEX study was designed to provide direct-measurement/remote sensing/modeling approaches for understanding the impact of spatial and temporal variability in vegetation cover, soil moisture and other land-surface states on turbulent flux exchange with the satmosphere. The unique data set consisting of in-situ and aircraft measurements of atmospheric, vegetation and soil properties and fluxes allows for detailed and rigorous analysis and validation of surface states and fluxes diagnosed using remote sensing methods at various scales. Research results presented in the special issue have illuminated on the potential of satellite remote sensing algorithms for soil moisture retrieval, land surface flux estimation, and in the assimilation of surface states and diagnostically modeled fluxes into prognostic land surface models. Ground and aircraft-based remote sensing of the land surface and atmospheric boundary layer properties are used to quantify heat fluxes at the tower footprint and regional scales. Tower and aircraft-based heat and momentum fluxes are used to evaluate local and regional roughness. The spatial and temporal variations in water, energy and carbon fluxes from the tower network and aircraft under changing vegetation cover and soil moisture conditions are evaluated. An overview of the experimental site, design, data, hydrometeorological conditions and results and results are presented in this introduction, and serves as a preface to this special issue highlighting SMACEX results.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014
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