Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Ipm As An Alternative to Methyl Bromide for Control of Soil-Borne Pests in Vineyard Replant Situations

Authors
item Schneider, Sally
item Trout, Thomas
item Ajwa, Husein - UC DAVIS

Submitted to: Phytopathology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 10, 2005
Publication Date: June 1, 2005
Citation: Schneider, S.M., Trout, T.J., Ajwa, H.A. 2005. Ipm as an alternative to methyl bromide for control of soil-borne pests in vineyard replant situations. Phytopathology. Phytopathology 95: 5139-S/40.

Interpretive Summary: Vineyard replant disorder is a disease described as a generic failure of young vines to thrive when planted in the same field from which an existing vineyard had been removed. While the causes for this disease are not fully known, plant-parasitic nematode populations are often high in vineyard replant soils. This disease can be controlled by fumigation with methyl bromide. When nematodes are known to be the predominant pest, fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), alone or in combination with chloropicrin, can control replant disorder. Use of methyl bromide has been phased out, except for Critical Use Exemptions (CUE) or Quarantine/Preshipment (QPS) applications. Growers will need alternatives to methyl bromide in order to continue producing their crops. Several field trials were conducted in fields following the removal of 60+ year-old vineyards. Treatments included combinations of registered and experimental chemicals, fallowing up to three years, cover crop, and resistant varieties. Nematode population density, plant growth, and berry yield were recorded up to six years after planting. The predominant nematodes present were rootknot nematode and citrus nematode. The benefit of multi-year fallow varied with kind of nematode present in the field. Fumigation provided excellent control of nematodes. None of the rootstocks were resistant to both kinds of nematode. Differences in plant growth did not always result in differences in yield. Results for the combinations of treatments over time will be presented.

Technical Abstract: Vineyard replant disorder is a disease of unknown etiology described as a generic failure of young vines to thrive when planted in the same field from which an existing vineyard had been removed. While not all the causal agents of the disease have been identified, plant-parasitic nematode densities are often high in vineyard replant soils. This disease can be controlled by fumigation with methyl bromide. When nematodes are known to be the predominant pest, fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), alone or in combination with chloropicrin, can control replant disorder. Use of methyl bromide has been phased out, except for Critical Use Exemptions (CUE) or Quarantine/Preshipment (QPS) applications. Several field trials were conducted in fields following the removal of 60+ year-old vineyards. Treatments included combinations of registered and experimental fumigants, fallowing up to three years, cover crop, and resistant varieties. Nematode population density, plant vegetative growth, and berry yield were recorded up to six years after planting. The predominant nematodes present were Meloidogyne spp. and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. The benefit of multi-year fallow varied with nematode genus. Fumigation provided excellent control of nematodes. None of the rootstocks were resistant to both nematode genera. Differences in plant growth did not always result in differences in yield. Results for the combinations of treatments over time will be presented.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014