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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS AS ADSORBENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

Location: Commodity Utilization Research

Title: Optimization Analysis of Sunflower Butter

Authors
item LIMA, ISABEL
item Guraya, Harmeet

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 8, 2005
Publication Date: July 13, 2005
Citation: Lima, I.M., Guraya, H.S. 2005. Optimization analysis of sunflower butter. Journal of Food Science. 70(6):S365-S370.

Interpretive Summary: Sunflower butter has recently experienced a 30% decrease in U.S. exports. One way to expand the U.S. sunflower seed market and increase the demand for sunflower seeds is to develop new value added applications, such as a superior quality sunflower butter. A sunflower butter product was formulated and processing conditions were varied in order to study their effect on the overall sensory and physical characteristics of the final product. Amounts of salt, sugar and stabilizer as well as roast level were optimized to yield a sunflower butter that most closely resembles peanut butter. The panel found the sunflower butter samples to look very similar to peanut butter and to have a mild, yet distinctive sunflower seed flavor. Cluster analysis on sensory data revealed "best" formulation to have 1.8% stabilizer, 7% salt, 1.1% sugar and low roast level. Cluster analysis on the instrumental hardness, adhesion, oil separation and color profile revealed the formulation closest to the controls to have same amount of sugar and roast level, but 1.6% of stabilizer and 1.1% salt instead. This research was done under a CRADA (#58-3K95-2-942) with Red River Commodities, Fargo, ND, with Isabel Lima as the Principal Investigator. The technology was successfully transferred and is being commercialized by SunGold Foods, Fargo, ND under the Trademark name "Sunbutter."

Technical Abstract: A sunflower butter product was formulated and processing conditions were varied in order to study their effect on the overall sensory and physical characteristics of the final product. Amounts of salt, sugar and stabilizer as well as roast level were optimized to yield a sunflower butter that most closely resembles peanut butter, in both physical and sensory quality. In order to produce a wide range of flavor, aroma, color and texture attributes, two roasting levels (high and low), two sugar levels (7 and 9%), two salt levels (0.9 and 1.1%), and three stabilizer (Dritex-C) levels (1.6, 1.7, and 1.8%) were selected. Sunflower butter formulations were rated more "earthy" and less "salty" than peanut butter, but differences in "sweet" attribute were small. Largest differences in the textural sensory attributes were denoted for the initial firmness and spreadability, with panel judging sunflower butter samples less spreadable and having a higher initial firmness. Panel rated sunflower butters more adhesive at the first bite, however, once chewed, sunflower butters were rated as less adhesive and higher on the "ease of swallow." Cluster analysis on sensory data revealed the "best" formulation to have 1.8% stabilizer, 7% sugar, 1.1% salt and a low roast level. Cluster analysis on the instrumental hardness, adhesion, oil separation and color profile revealed the formulation closest to the controls to have the same amount of sugar and roast level, but 1.6% of stabilizer and 0.9% salt instead.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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