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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Campylobacter Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin and Corresponding Fluoroquinolone Concentrations Within the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Chickens

Authors
item Farnell, Morgan
item DONOGHUE, ANN
item Cole, Kimberly - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Reyes-Herrera, Ixchel - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Blore, Pamela - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Donoghue, Dan - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Submitted to: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 7, 2005
Publication Date: November 5, 2005
Citation: Farnell, M.B., Donoghue, A.M., Cole, K., Reyes-Herrera, I., Blore, P., Donoghue, D.J. 2005. Campylobacter susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and corresponding fluoroquinolone concentrations within the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 99(5):1043-1050.

Interpretive Summary: There have been recent concerns that the agricultural use of antibiotics may increase antibiotic resistance of foodborne pathogens and make medical treatment of these diseases in humans more difficult. There has been little research, however, on the kinetics of antibiotic and foodborne pathogen susceptibility in various location of the avian gut. This information may provide insights to the development of pathogen resistance and potential treatment options to reduce its development. To this end, the model fluoroquinolone antibiotic, enrofloxacin, was dosed for either 3 or 7 d at two different concentrations and the pattern of Campylobacter susceptibility and corresponding antibiotic concentrations within the crop, duodenum, upper ileum, lower ileum and ceca of chickens were determined. Chickens were challenged with fluoroquinolone sensitive Campylobacter at two weeks post hatch and at 26 days of age treated with 0 (control), 25 or 50 mg ml-1 enrofloxacin (Baytril®) in the drinking water for 3 or 7 days respectively. The crop, upper ileum, lower ileum, ceca and colon were aseptically collected from five birds per enrofloxacin treatment per day. The fluoroquinolone minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Campylobacter isolated from the low and high dose enrofloxacin treatments increased when compared with controls within the first day of fluoroquinolone dosing and ranged from 1'6 to 6'5 µg mL-1 throughout the study. At the end of the first day of dosing, Campylobacter was undetectable in the gut except for the ceca in both treatment groups, but by the second day of dosing other areas of the gut started to recolonize with Campylobacter. Gut location did not affect fluoroquinolone concentrations or Campylobacter susceptibility, when detected, within either treatment group. These data indicate that enrofloxacin treatment nearly eliminated Campylobacter in the gastrointestinal tract during initial treatment. It may be possible, in future studies, to eliminate antibiotic resistant Campylobacter from the intestinal tract with the use of additional treatments (e.g. prebiotics, bacteriophage).

Technical Abstract: There have been recent concerns that the agricultural use of antibiotics may increase antibiotic resistance of foodborne pathogens and make medical treatment of these diseases in humans more difficult. There has been little research, however, on the kinetics of antibiotic and foodborne pathogen susceptibility in various location of the avian gut. This information may provide insights to the development of pathogen resistance and potential treatment options to reduce its development. To this end, the model fluoroquinolone antibiotic, enrofloxacin, was dosed for either 3 or 7 d at two different concentrations and the pattern of Campylobacter susceptibility and corresponding antibiotic concentrations within the crop, duodenum, upper ileum, lower ileum and ceca of chickens were determined. Chickens (n=139) were given a combined challenge of seven fluoroquinolone sensitive C. jejuni at two weeks post hatch and at 26 days of age treated with 0 (n = 23 birds, controls) or 25 (n = 48 birds) or 50 (n = 68 birds) mg ml-1 enrofloxacin (Baytril®) in the drinking water for 3 or 7 days respectively. The crop, upper ileum, lower ileum, ceca and colon were aseptically collected from five birds per enrofloxacin treatment per day. The fluoroquinolone minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Campylobacter isolated from the low and high dose enrofloxacin treatments increased when compared with controls within the first day of fluoroquinolone dosing and ranged from 1'6 to 6'5 µg mL-1 throughout the study. At the end of the first day of dosing, Campylobacter was undetectable in the gut except for the ceca in both treatment groups, but by the second day of dosing other areas of the gut started to recolonize with Campylobacter. Gut location did not affect fluoroquinolone concentrations or Campylobacter susceptibility, when detected, within either treatment group. These data indicate that enrofloxacin treatment nearly eliminated Campylobacter in the gastrointestinal tract during initial treatment. It may be possible, in future studies, to eliminate antibiotic resistant Campylobacter from the intestinal tract with the use of additional treatments (e.g. prebiotics, bacteriophage).

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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