Submitted to: Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: October 8, 2004
Publication Date: October 8, 2004
Citation: Conn, J.S., Beattie, K.L. 2004. Seed viability and dormancy of 17 weed species after 20 years of burial in alaska. Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts. Technical Abstract: A 50-year study at Fairbanks, AK was started in 1984 to determine soil seed longevity of 17 weed species. Seed were buried in mesh bags 2 and 15 cm deep and were recovered 0.7, 1.7, 2.7, 3.7, 4.7, 6.7, 9.7 and 19.7 yr later. Viability was determined by germination and tetrazolium tests. All common hempnettle, Galeopsis tetrahit L., and quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski, seed were dead after 2.7 and 3.7 yr, respectively. Less than 1% of wild oats, Avena Fatua L., and foxtail barley, Hordeum jubatum L., seed were viable after 3.7 yr, but > 6.7 yr were required for loss of all viability. By 9.7 yr, < 1% seed viability remained for bluejoint reedgrass, Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Nutt.; corn spurry, Spergula arvensis L.; pineappleweed, Matricaria matricariodes (Less.) C.L. Porter; prostrate knotweed, Polygonum arvensis L.; and wild buckwheat, Polygonum convolvulus L. From 2- - 5% seed from common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo; common lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L.; flixweed, Descurania sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl; Pennsylvania smartweed, Polygonum pensylvanicum L.; rough cinquefoil, Potentilla norvegica L.; marsh yellowcress, Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas; and shepherd's-purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. were viable, while 62% of American dragonhead, Drachocephalum parviflorum Nutt., were still alive. After 20 yr of burial, bluejoint reedgrass seed were no longer viable, but seed of 12 other species were still viable: cornspurry (0.1%), prostrate knotweed (0.5%), flixweed (0.5%), pineappleweed (0.6%), shepherd's-purse (1.3%), wild buckwheat (1.5%), common chickweed (1.6%), rough cinquefoil (1.8%), common lambsquarters (3.0%), Pennsylvania smartweed (3.3%), marsh yellowcress (4.4%), and American dragonhead (62.2%). Seed Longevity of these species did not appear to be enhanced by the cold temperatures found in the subarctic.