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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Fluorescence Characteristics of Wholesome and Unwholesome Chicken Carcasses

Authors
item Kim, Moon
item Chen, Yud
item Kang, Sukwon
item Kim, Intaek - MYONGJI UNIV S KOREA
item Lefcourt, Alan
item Kim, Moonjohn - UNIV OF MD MEDICINE

Submitted to: Journal of Applied Spectroscopy
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 11, 2006
Publication Date: October 1, 2006
Citation: Kim, M.S., Chen, Y.R., Kang, S., Kim, I., Lefcourt, A.M., Kim, M. 2006. Fluorescence characteristics of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses. Journal of Applied Spectroscopy. 60(10):1210-1216.

Interpretive Summary: Poultry consumption has been steadily increasing for the past several decades. Each chicken carcass intended for U.S. consumers is mandated to be inspected by Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) inspectors for its wholesomeness at the processing plants. The Instrumentation and Sensing Laboratory, USDA has been developing automated on-line inspection systems to determine chicken carcasses for wholesomeness. Fluorescence characteristics of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses were evaluated for potential on-line applications for classification of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses. Unwholesome chicken carcasses included cadaver and those diseased, such as airsacculitis and septicemia. Fluorescence characteristics of chicken carcasses were shown to be dynamic in nature and the line shapes of fluorescence responses were affected by the presence of hemoglobin. With the use of fluorescence method, wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses were classified with 97.1 % and 94.8 % accuracies, respectively. On-line implementation of fluorescence techniques for the assessment of chicken carcass wholesomeness appears promising. This research is provides useful information for FSIS and processing plants. In addition, scientists and engineers may develop, based on the presented method and results, a non-invasive automated inspection system to determine wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcass conditions.

Technical Abstract: Fluorescence responses of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses were characterized and further evaluated for potential on-line applications for detection and classification of wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses. For this study, unwholesome chicken carcasses included cadaver and those diseased, such as airsacculitis and septicemia. Fluorescence characteristics from chicken carcasses were dynamic in nature. Emission peaks and ridges (maxima) were observed at 386, 444, 472, 512, and 554 nm and valleys (minima) were observed at 410, 460, 484, 538 nm. One of the major factors affecting the line shapes of fluorescence responses on chicken carcass skin layers was absorption by hemoglobin. With the use of normalized ratio spectra (NRS) approach, oxyhemoglobin was shown to be the major constituent in chicken carcasses affecting the fluorescence emission line shapes. A subtle line shape changes in the NRS also provided a qualitative means to assess the minute differences in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin compositions perturbed by the poultry diseases such as septicemia and airsacculitis. With the use of simple fluorescence band ratios as multivariate model, wholesome and unwholesome chicken carcasses were correctly classified with 97.1 % and 94.8 % accuracies, respectively. On-line implementation of fluorescence techniques for the assessment of chicken carcass wholesomeness appears promising.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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