Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2005
Publication Date: June 1, 2005
Citation: Knight, A.L., Hilton, R., Light, D.M. 2005. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple with blends of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and codlemone. Environmental Entomology. 34(3):598-603. Interpretive Summary: Codling moth adults are typically monitored with sex pheromone-baited traps in apple, pear, and walnut orchards. When orchards are treated with sex pheromone for mating disruption, this type of monitoring becomes more difficult due to the disruption of moths' orientation into traps. The discovery that the pear ester is attractive to both sexes of codling moth offers a new monitoring approach in these orchards that is not as strongly impacted by the application of sex pheromones for mating disruption. Studies were conducted to evaluate whether combining the pear ester with sex pheromone into a combo lure would increase captures of male and female moths in monitoring traps. Lures loaded with both sex pheromone and pear ester caught significantly more moths than either compound alone. This increase in moth catch with the combo lure was due to an increase in male and not female moth capture. Increasing the loading rate of a pear ester lure relative to a low load sex pheromone lure increased male but reduced female catch. Adding a pear ester lure to a high load sex pheromone lure significantly reduced male but not female catch. The optimal loading of a pear ester and sex pheromone combo lure for sex pheromone mating disrupted orchards may depend on a number of factors and the objectives of monitoring.
Technical Abstract: Studies evaluated septa loaded with blends of the pear-derived kairomone ethyl (E, Z)-2, 4-decadienoate and codlemone as lures for adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Studies were conducted in apple orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers for mating disruption (MD). Septa were loaded with either one or both compounds at rates of 0.0, 0.3, and 3.0 mg pear ester and 0.0 and 3.0 mg codlemone in the first series of tests. Traps baited with a 3.0/3.0 mg blend caught significantly more males and total number of codling moths than traps baited with either compound alone in both types of orchards. Traps baited with two lures loaded individually with pear ester (3.0 mg) and codlemone (3.0 mg) caught significantly fewer males and total moths than traps baited with the dual lure (3.0/3.0 mg). The addition of 3.0 mg codlemone to pear ester did not significantly affect the capture of female moths. However, increasing the loading of pear ester from 0.3 to 3.0 mg in the dual lure significantly increased female moth catch in the untreated orchard but not in the sex pheromone MD orchard. Increasing the loading of pear ester to 20.0 mg in a dual lure with 3.0 mg codlemone significantly increased total codling moth catch compared with a 3.0 mg codlemone lure, but female catch was significantly lower compared with traps baited with a 3.0 mg pear ester lure. Adding a 3.0 mg pear ester lure to traps baited with a 42.0 mg sex pheromone lure significantly reduced male moth catch compared with the sex pheromone lure alone but did not reduce the catch of female moths compared with traps baited with a 3.0 mg pear ester lure alone.