Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 31, 2005
Publication Date: February 15, 2005
Citation: Eller, F.J., List, G.R., Teel, J.A., Steidley, K.R., Adlof, R.O. 2005. Preparation of spread oils meeting FDA labeling requirements for trans fatty acids via pressure controlled bydrogenation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(15):5982-5984. Interpretive Summary: The U.S. Federal Food and Drug Administration has mandated the inclusion of trans fat data on nutrition labels. In part, this resulted from studies showing that trans fats raise serum cholesterol levels in humans and suggest a link with coronary heart disease. Trans fats are produced during vegetable oil processing (hydrogenation) and raise the melting points such that they may be used in food products such as table spreads, baking and frying fats. This paper describes methods that will allow the formulation of table spreads meeting the new labeling requirements. By carrying out the reaction at lower temperatures and pressures, trans fatty acids formation is suppressed, yet providing the necessary functional properties.
Technical Abstract: On July 11, 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced final regulations for trans fatty acid (TFA) labeling. By January 1, 2006, TFA content of foods must be labeled as a separate line on the Nutrition Facts label. Products containing less than 0.5 gm TFA/14 gm serving may be declared as zero. This paper describes technologies allowing compliance with TFA labeling requirements. Soybean oil was hydrogenated in a 1-liter vessel at temperatures ranging from 120 to 170 deg C at a hydrogen pressure of 200 psi. A commercial nickel supported catalyst (25% Ni) was used at 0.2% Ni by weight of oil. The hydrogenated oils were characterized for fatty acid composition, solid fat content, and melting point. Compared to commercially processed soybean oil basestocks that typically contain about 40% TFA, those obtained at lower temperatures and higher pressures contain over 56% less TFA. Basestocks prepared in the laboratory when blended with liquid soybean oil will yield spread oils meeting FDA labeling requirements for zero TFA, i.e. >0.5 gm TFA/serving.