Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 2005
Publication Date: June 1, 2005
Citation: Church, G., Rosskopf, E. 2004. First report of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne arenaria on tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) in Florida. Plant Disease. 89:527; published on-line as DOI: 10.1094/PD-89-0527C. Technical Abstract: Tropical soda apple (TSA), Solanum viarum Dunal, is an invasive, noxious, perennial weed that has invaded large areas of the southeast United States. TSA is commonly found growing in pasture lands and is spread by cattle, wildlife and in the movement of sod and hay. Pasture land is commonly rotated into vegetable production. TSA has been shown to be a reservoir for viral diseases of economically important plants (1). In November, 2003 TSA was collected from a vegetable farm previously used for pasture land in Martin County, Florida. Root galling caused by root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) was observed. Female Meloidogyne were randomly extracted from the roots and placed in extraction buffer (10% wt/vol sucrose, 2% vol/vol Triton X-100, 0.01% wt/vol bromophenol blue). The females were crushed, loaded on a polyacrylamide gel and separated by electrophoresis using the PhastSystemTM (Amersham Biosciences) (2). The activities of malate dehydrogenase and esterase enzymes were detected using standard techniques (3). Isozyme phenotype consistent with M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood was observed. An experiment was established to determine if TSA would support reproduction of other Meloidogyne species. Reproduction was observed with M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. floridensis. Thus, TSA is a potential host for the major root-knot nematode species found in Florida and throughout the southern United States. The multiple species able to reproduce on TSA implies that multiple crops may be affected if TSA is not managed in prior land uses. This is the first report of Meloidogyne arenaria occurring on tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum.