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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effect of Sclerotinia Minor Infection Loci on Peanut Production Parameters

Authors
item Chamberlin, Kelly
item Melouk, Hassan
item Payton, Mark - OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 15, 2005
Publication Date: September 1, 2006
Citation: Chenault, K.D., Melouk, H.A., Payton, M.E. 2006. Effect of Sclerotinia minor infection loci on peanut production parameters. Peanut Science. 33:36-40.

Interpretive Summary: Fungal diseases of peanut, such as Sclerotinia blight, are responsible for increased production costs and yield losses of up to 50% for peanut producers in the Southwestern U.S., North Carolina and Virginia. Increased efforts to develop methods to control outbreaks of Sclerotinia blight are necessary to ensure the longevity of peanut production in areas of the U.S. where the disease occurs. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of location and timing of Sclerotinia blight infection on plant production parameters. This report summarizes results from a two-year field trial where the susceptible peanut cultivar Okrun was subjected to high disease pressure with no application of fungicide for control of Sclerotinia blight. Location of initial S. minor infection was noted to occur either on the 'crown' or 'limb' of infected plants, and the date of initial onset was recorded. In general, plants with initial crown infections had reduced yield and seed quality compared to those with initial limb infections. Initial infections occurring in early- and mid-season had a similar effect on plant productivity compared to infections with a late-season onset. Mid-season onset of a crown infection had the greatest impact on plant productivity, causing a severe decrease in seed quality and pod yield. The results of this study suggest that limiting infection of the plant's crown area, without necessarily trying to prevent limb infections, may increase plant productivity up to 48%. Including initial location of infection and date of disease onset in such modeling programs may lead to more effective means of Sclerotinia blight control in the future.

Technical Abstract: Fungal diseases of peanut, such as Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor, are responsible for increased production costs and yield losses of up to 50% for peanut producers in the Southwestern U.S., North Carolina and Virginia. The literature is replete with information on the pathology, epidemiology, and control of S. minor infection of peanut, however little is known about the physical location of infection on the plant and its effect on plant production. This report summarizes results from a two-year field trial where the susceptible peanut cultivar Okrun was subjected to high disease pressure with no application of fungicide for control of S. minor. Location of initial S. minor infection was noted to occur either on the 'crown' or 'limb' of infected plants, and the date of initial onset was recorded. In general, plants with initial crown infections had reduced yield and seed quality compared to those with initial limb infections. Initial infections occurring in early- and mid-season had a similar effect on plant productivity compared to infections with a late-season onset. Mid-season onset of a crown infection had the greatest impact on plant productivity, causing a severe decrease in seed quality and pod yield.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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