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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Eight-Year Performance of 19 Peach Rootstocks at 20 Locations in North America

Authors
item Reighard, G - CLEMSON UNIV.
item Andersen, R - CORNELL UNIV.
item Anderson, J - UTAH STATE UNIV.
item Autio, W - UNIV. OF MASS.
item Beckman, Thomas
item Baker, T - SW MISS. STATE UNIV.
item Belding, R - RUTGERS
item Brown, G - UNIV. OF KENTUCKY
item Byers, P - SW MISSOURI STATE UNIV.
item Cowgill, W - RUTGERS
item Deyton, D - UNIV. OF TENN.
item Durner, E - RUTGERS
item Erb, A - KANSAS STATE UNIV.
item Ferree, D - OHIO STATE UNIV.
item Gaus, A - COLORADO STATE UNIV.
item Godin, R - COLORADO STATE UNIV.
item Hayden, R - PURDUE UNIV.
item Hirst, P - PURDUE UNIV.
item Kadir, S - KANSAS STATE UNIV.
item Kaps, M - SW MISSOURI STATE UNIV.
item Larsen, H - COLORADO STATE UNIV.
item Lindstrom, T - UTAH STATE UNIV.
item Miles, N - HORT RES INST. OF ONTARIO
item Morrison, F - KANSAS STATE UNIV.
item Myers, S - OHIO STATE UNIV.
item Ouellette, D - CLEMSON UNIV.
item Rom, C - UNIV. OF ARKANSAS
item Shane, W - MICH. STATE UNIV.
item Taylor, B - SO. ILLINOIS UNIV.
item Taylor, K - UNIV. OF GEORGIA
item Walsh, C - UNIV. OF MARYLAND
item Warmund, M - UNIV. OF MISSOURI

Submitted to: Journal of American Pomological Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 22, 2004
Publication Date: October 1, 2004
Citation: Reighard, G.L., Andersen, R.L., Anderson, J.L., Autio, W.R., Beckman, T.G., Baker, T.P., Belding, R.D., Brown, G.R., Byers, P.L., Cowgill, W.P., Deyton, D., Durner, E., Erb, A., Ferree, D.C., Gaus, A., Godin, R., Hayden, R., Hirst, P., Kadir, S., Kaps, M.L., Larsen, H., Lindstrom, T., Miles, N.W., Morrison, F., Myers, S.C., Ouellette, D., Rom, C.R., Shane, W., Taylor, B.H., Taylor, K., Walsh, C.S., Warmund, M. 2004. Eight-year performance of 19 peach rootstocks at 20 locations in north america. Journal of American Pomological Society. 58(4):174-202.

Interpretive Summary: To increase orchard productivity and efficiency, growers are looking for solutions in the form of new rootstocks that are more resistant to winter cold damage, drought stress, soil anaerobic conditions, root pathogens, soil nematodes, bacterial and fungal cankers, etc. New peach seedling and clonal rootstocks released in the last 20 years have been variously reported to be more productive, tolerant of replant sites, nematodes, Armillaria root rot, crown gall or more winter hardy than previous utilized rootstocks. However, these rootstocks have had only limited testing in North America. To determine the merits of these rootstocks for use under North American conditions a large scale cooperative regional trial was undertaken. Only 7 of 19 rootstocks were common to all locations. Moreover, rootstock x site interactions were common indicating that specific recommendations might need to be made locally rather than regionally much less nationally. However, some trends were evident in the performance of the 7 rootstocks (Lovell, Bailey, Tennessee Natural 281-1, GF 305, Higama, Montclar and Guardian (BY520-9)) common to all locations. After 8 years, trees on Guardian and Lovell rootstocks were the largest. Trees on Guardian, Lovell and Montclar produced the largest yields. However, trees on Tennessee Natural 281-1 and Bailey had the highest yield efficiency. Individual fruit size was largest on Bailey and Higama rootstocks. Rootstock suckering was highest on Guardian rootstock.

Technical Abstract: To increase orchard productivity and efficiency, growers are looking for solutions in the form of new rootstocks that are more resistant to winter cold damage, drought stress, soil anaerobic conditions, root pathogens, soil nematodes, bacterial and fungal cankers, etc. New peach seedling and clonal rootstocks released in the last 20 years have been variously reported to be more productive, tolerant of replant sites, nematodes, Armillaria root rot, crown gall or more winter hardy than previous utilized rootstocks. However, these rootstocks have had only limited testing in North America. To determine the merits of these rootstocks for use under North American conditions a large scale cooperative regional trial was undertaken. Only 7 of 19 rootstocks were common to all locations. Moreover, rootstock x site interactions were common indicating that specific recommendations might need to be made locally rather than regionally much less nationally. However, some trends were evident in the performance of the 7 rootstocks (Lovell, Bailey, Tennessee Natural 281-1, GF 305, Higama, Montclar and Guardian (BY520-9)) common to all locations. After 8 years, trees on Guardian and Lovell rootstocks were the largest. Trees on Guardian, Lovell and Montclar produced the largest yields. However, trees on Tennessee Natural 281-1 and Bailey had the highest yield efficiency. Individual fruit size was largest on Bailey and Higama rootstocks. Rootstock suckering was highest on Guardian rootstock. Nineteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with 'Redhaven' peach were planted at 20 locations in North America in 1994 as an uniform planting of the NC-140 Cooperative Regional Rootstock Project. The rootstocks included peach seedlings from 'Lovell', 'Nemaguard', 'Bailey', Tennessee Natural 281-1', 'Stark's Redleaf', GF 305', 'Higama', 'Montclar', 'Rubira', 'Chui Lum Tao', Tzim Pee Tao', 'H7338013', 'H7338019', 'BY520-8', and 'Guardian BY520-9'. Clonal rootstocks included 'Ishtara', 'Myran', 'S.2729', and 'Ta Tao 5' interstem on 'Lovell'. Data were summarized across the 20 sites in 18 states and provinces over eight years. Tree survival was lowest in the Michigan, Indiana and southeastern Missouri plantings and best in Arkansas, Kansas, Maryland, New York, South Carolina, and Utah. Trunk circumference was largest in southern Illinois, central Tennessee, southeastern Missouri, and central New Jersey. 'Myran' was the most vigorous rootstock followed by 'S.2729' and 'Guardian BY520-9'. 'Ishtara', 'Tzim Pee Tao', and 'Chui Lum Tao' produced the smallest trees. Full bloom date was significantly advanced (<1 day) on 'Myran' rootstock and delayed (1-5 days) on the 'Ta Tao 5' interstem. Fruit maturity was advanced <1 day on 'Myran' and 'Tennessee Natural 281-1' and delayed 1-4 days on 'Ta Tao 5 interstems' when compared to 'Lovell'. The effect of 'Ta Tao 5' on bloom and ripening delay in days was more prolonged in the South (i.e., Georgia, South Carolina). Fruit weight was significantly influenced by rootstock as 'Redhaven' fruit from 'BY520-8' and 'Ta Tao 5' interstem trees were smaller (ca. 10 g) and fruit from 'Ishtara' and 'H7338013' were larger (6-7 g) than fruit from trees on 'Lovell' Cumulative fruit yield (1996-2001) significantly varied among rootstocks, and yield differences were evident between locations at the highest cumulative fruit yields were from Ohio, north central New Jersey, Maryland, and South Carolina. No rootstock yielded significantly more than 'Lovell'. However, 'GF3 305', 'Montclar', Guardian BY520-9' and 'H7338019' yielded equivalent to 'Lovell'. In contrast, 'Ishtara', 'Chui Lum Tao', 'Tzim Pee Tao', 'Bailey', 'Higama', and 'Rubira' and the 'Ta Tao 5' interstem trees often had significantly lower yields than 'Lovell'. Relative ranking of cumulative yields according to rootstocks and geographic locations tended to remain unchanged after the fifth year.

Last Modified: 7/22/2014