Submitted to: Review Article
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: December 15, 2004
Publication Date: February 15, 2005
Citation: Chiou, B., Yee, E., Shey, J., Glenn, G.M., Orts, W.J. 2005. Rheology and processing of starch-based nanocomposites. Carbohydrate Polymers 59:467-475. Technical Abstract: The effects of incorporating various montmorillonite nanoclays into native wheat starch samples were examined by dynamic rheology. In addition, wheat starch-nanoclay composites were produced by using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The moisture content during extrusion was varied and the nanoclay dispersion was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Rheology results showed that the sample containing the most hydrophilic nanoclay, Cloisite Na+, had the largest elastic modulus after heating to 95°C. This indicated that Cloisite Na+ nanoclay had more interactions with the starch molecules than the other more hydrophobic nanoclays. During extrusion, the moisture content had a large effect on Cloisite Na+ nanoclay dispersion. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the high moisture sample had exfoliated nanoclays, whereas the lower moisture samples had intercalated nanoclays. On the other hand, moisture content had a smaller effect on dispersion of the more hydrophobic Cloisite 30B nanoclay.