Submitted to: Animal Health Research Reviews
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: January 13, 2005
Publication Date: June 1, 2005
Citation: Hill, D.E., Chirukandoth, S., Dubey, J.P. 2005. Toxoplasma gondii. Animal Health Research Reviews. 6(1):41-61.
Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle and Manceaux 1908) Nicolle and Manceaux, 1909, is a coccidian parasite which utilizes felids as definitive hosts, and which has an unusually wide intermediate host range. The parasite was initially described by Nicolle and Manceaux in 1908 from the rodent, Ctenodactylus gundi. Infection with T. gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of man and other warm-blooded animals (Dubey and Beattie, 1988). It has been found worldwide from Alaska to Australia. Nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite (Dubey and Beattie, 1988 ); serologic surveys indicate that T. gondii infections are common in wild carnivores, including pigs, bears, felids, fox, raccoons, and skunks. Clinical and subclinical toxoplasmosis has been reported from wild cervids, ungulates, marsupials, monkeys, and marine mammals. Southern sea otter populations have been severely impacted by Toxoplasma infections.