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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Growth Hormone Differentially Regulates Muscle Myostatin 1 and -2 and Increases Circulating Cortisol in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors
item Biga, Peggy - UNIV OF ID, MOSCOW
item Overturf, Kenneth
item Cain, Ken - UNIV OF ID, MOSCOW
item Hardy, Ronald - UNIV OF ID, HAGERMAN
item Schelling, Gerald - UNIV OF ID, MOSCOW
item Roberts, Steven - MARINE BIO LAB, MA
item Goetz, Frederick - MARINE BIO LAB, MA
item Ott, Troy - UNIV OF ID, MOSCOW

Submitted to: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 3, 2004
Publication Date: August 10, 2004
Citation: Biga, P.R., Cain, K.D., Hardy, R.W., Shelling, G.T., Overturf, K., Roberts, S.B., Goetz, F.W. and Ott, T.L. Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (2004) General and Comparative Endocrinology 138: 32-41.

Interpretive Summary: Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, gene expression levels for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout appear to be differentially regulated. Myostatin 1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following treatment with an injected growth hormonet, while Myostatin 2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. In addition, cortisol levels were elevated 71% following growth hormone treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to Myostatin 1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between growth hormone, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following growth hormone administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between growth hormone, cortisol, and muscle growth.

Technical Abstract: Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42 kDa) levels were elevated in rbGH treated fish compared to controls. In addition, circulating cortisol levels were elevated 71% following rbGH treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to MSTN1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between GH, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following rbGH administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between GH, cortisol, and muscle growth.

Last Modified: 9/21/2014
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