DEVELOPMENT OF ACCURATE AND REPRESENTATIVE FOOD COMPOSITION DATA FOR THE U.S. FOOD SUPPLY
Location: Nutrient Data
Title: USDA COOKING YIELD DATABASE, PLANT PRODUCT RELEASE (2004) ELECTRONIC VERSION OF AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK NO. 102
| Holcomb, Gwendolyn |
| Cutrufelli, Rena |
| Lemar, Linda |
| Stup, Melissa - JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV |
| Bingham, Marybeth - JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV |
Submitted to: Home Page
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: August 30, 2004
Publication Date: August 30, 2004
Citation: Holcomb, G.T., Cutrufelli, R.L., Lemar, L.E., Stup, M., Bingham, M., Haytowitz, D.B. 2004. Usda cooking yield database, plant product release (2004) electronic version of agriculture handbook no. 102. Home Page. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.
Interpretive Summary: Most public and private sector databases apply cooking yields to nutrient values as part of the nutrient calculation process, where analytical data for cooked foods are unavailable. Composition data are needed for both the nutrient value for the uncooked and cooked forms of foods. However, nutrient data for cooked foods are generally not available. Therefore, nutrient composition of a cooked food may be calculated from the uncooked food by applying cooking yield and nutrient retention factors to these data to reflect changes in food weights resulting from moisture and fat losses during cooking. In the past, yield data have been available only in printed formats of the Agriculture Handbook No. 102 (AH-102) and USDA, Agricultural Research Service's publication 62-13 (ARS 62-13). For the first time data from AH-102 and ARS 62-13 have been assimilated into an electronic USDA Cooking Yield Table.
Since 1950, the USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) has been responsible for generating food yield data as a supplemental table to its food composition products. Food cooking yield data reflect changes in food weights', due to moisture and fat gains and/or losses, during food preparation. Cooking yield factors and data for moisture and fat changes, are used to refine and improve recipe and food formulation calculations, resulting in nutrient values that more accurately reflect the actual nutrient content of the food. In addition to the refinement of nutrient values, cooking yield data have been referenced for use in nutrition monitoring, nutrition research and education as well in food service.
In the past, yield data have been available only in the printed format of the Agriculture Handbook No. 102 (AH-102) and USDA, Agricultural Research Service's publication 62-13 (ARS 62-13). For the first time data from AH-102 and ARS 62-13 have been reviewed and assimilated into this electronic USDA Cooking Yields Database. More than 650 items were drawn from AH-102 and ARS 62-13 publications; those original yield data will be used until updates can be performed. For ease in use, revisions were made to selected food items from AH-102 and ARS 62-13 and a limited number of bakery, sweets, and vegetable products have been updated or added. New yield data were calculated for six food items from the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Additional yield data were calculated from weights and moisture determinations performed in NDL's food laboratory. National brand foods were selected and prepared according to food label instructions. Percent moisture values were determined using an OHAUS MB-45 Moisture Analyzer. Future releases of the electronic yield table will include data calculated from NDL food laboratory work, the USDA National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program and other contract analyses.
The USDA Cooking Yield Database, Plant Product Release (2004) is available on NDL's Web site at www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp.