Submitted to: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: July 13, 2004
Publication Date: November 6, 2004
Citation: Merrill, S.D., Tanaka, D.L., Zobeck, T.M., Stout, J.M., Krupinsky, J.M., Hagen, L.J., Sharratt, B.S. 2004. Tillage affects measured wind erosion on sunflower stubble land in the Northern Great Plains. CD. Annual Meeting Abstracts, SSSA, CSSA, ASA, Madison, WI. Technical Abstract: Diversification of cropping systems in the northern Great Plains involves species with non-durable residues, creating potential wind erosion hazards under drought and tillage disturbance. A wind erosion study was established in central North Dakota on a silt loam soil (Haplustoll) with no-till sunflower stubble through imposition of April tillage treatments: (a) no-till (NoT); (b) single disking (MedT); (c) two passes with a heavier disk and rotary harrowing (MaxT). Chemical fallowing with glyphosate continued through mid-Sept. Soil loss was measured with BSNE-type sediment samplers near boundaries of square 1.4 ha replicate plots. Residual soil roughness limited greatest May soil losses, which were 700, 110, and 20 kg/ha for MaxT, MedT, and NoT. Rainfall interacted with wind to greatly decrease the ratios of MaxT and MedT losses to NoT loss. With low roughness and cover in July and August, MaxT losses for the top three storms were 19, 9, and 5 Mg/ha. June through mid-Sept. losses for MaxT, MedT, and NoT averaged 38, 12, and 6 Mg/ha. The MaxT to NoT loss ratio for May was 35 compared to a MaxT to NoT ratio of 6 for the June-Sept. period. The relative decrease of NoT effectiveness reflects the imposed prostrate condition of sunflower stalk material after May. Low plant/residue cover combined with poor soil surface structure to accelerate erosion in the MaxT treatment.