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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Preharvest Interventions That Change the Gut Ecology of Swine and Their Effect on Salmonella Colonization

Authors
item Anderson, Robin
item Genovese, Kenneth
item Jung, Yong Soo
item Callaway, Todd
item Edrington, Thomas
item Nisbet, David

Submitted to: Swine Summit
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: August 12, 2004
Publication Date: August 17, 2004
Citation: Anderson, R.C., Genovese, K.J., Jung, Y., Callaway, T.R., Edrington, T.S., Nisbet, D.J. 2004. Preharvest interventions that change the gut ecology of swine and their effect on Salmonella colonization. In: Proceedings of the National Pork Board Pork Quality and Safety Summit, August 17-18, 2004, Des Moines, Iowa. 2004 CDROM.

Interpretive Summary: Pigs are natural carriers of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia enterocolitica and often shed these pathogens in their feces during production. This can result in contamination of the farm environment as well as contamination of carcasses during processing. As many as 3.9 million human infections caused by these pathogenic bacteria are estimated to occur each year in the United States at a cost of more than $4.5 billion. A need exists, therefore, for the development of on-farm strategies that can reduce concentrations of these bacteria in the animal, especially since risk assessments have indicated that such preharvest interventions may significantly reduce human exposures to the pathogens. Concern over the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial populations that reside in the gut has also put pressure on today's livestock producers to find alternatives to their use of antibiotics. Thus, alternative technologies are sought to alleviate the industry's need for antibiotics, particularly in the very young animal. This review addresses several on-farm strategies that, while not yet commercially available, are being investigated as potential interventions to mitigate the ability of foodborne pathogens to colonize the gut of swine and other food producing animals.

Technical Abstract: The gut ecosystem of pigs is a natural habitat for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and Yersinia enterocolitica. Shedding of these pathogens in the feces during production contaminates the farm environment which thus serves as a reservoir during transport, lariage and at slaughter. For instance, as many as 3.9 million human infections caused by Salmonella, non-O157 shiga toxin producing E. coli and Campylobacter are estimated to occur annually in the United States at a cost of more than $4.5 billion. Considerable interest exists, therefore, in the development of strategies that can reduce concentrations of these bacteria in the animal gut before processing, especially since quantitative risk assessments indicate that preharvest interventions may significantly reduce human exposures to the pathogens. Concern over the emergence of resistant bacterial populations that reside in the gut ecosystem has also put pressure on today's livestock producers to find alternatives to subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics. Thus, alternative technologies are sought to alleviate the industry's need for antibiotics, particularly in the very young animal. This review addresses several on-farm strategies that, while not yet commercially available, are being investigated as potential interventions to mitigate the ability of foodborne pathogens to colonize the gut of swine and other food producing animals.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014