|Frederick, James - CLEMSON UNIV., FLORENCE|
Submitted to: Agronomy Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: August 15, 2004
Publication Date: October 15, 2004
Citation: Busscher, W.J., Bauer, P.J., Frederick, J.R. 2004. Conservation tillage management in southeastern coastal plain soils [abstract]. Agronomy Abstracts 2004 CD-ROM. Technical Abstract: In SE USA Paleudults and Kandiudults, high strengths and low water holding capacities limit production. To decrease strength and increase soil water, production systems with crop rotations or deep tillage before planting were compared with less intensive management from 1996 to 2001. Production included double-crop wheat and soybean drilled in 0.19-m-row widths grown in 15-m wide, 150-m long plots. Treatments included disking or not; paratilling or not; paratilling with winter fallow and corn in rotation; and disking, in-row subsoiling, and planting soybean in 0.76-m-wide rows. Cone indices were measured 120 m apart in each plot to assess differences among soil types and treatments. Cone indices were 1.50 MPa higher for non-deep tilled and 0.44 MPa higher in wheel tracks. Cone indices were also 0.28 MPa higher for soils with shallow Bt horizons. Rainfall ranged from 520 to 1110 mm; dry periods lasted two weeks or more. Wheat yields were 0.67 Mg/ha greater for deep-tilled treatments. Soybean yields were 0.36 Mg/ha lower for other treatments than paratilling which had more complete soil disruption and narrow rows. Yields did not vary among the soil types despite their cone index differences. For wheat, lower cone indices from tillage led to higher yields. For soybean, uniform loosening from deep tillage and narrow rows led to higher yields.