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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Efficacy of Suppression of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Persimmon Orchard Through Bait Sprays in Adjacent Coffee Plantings

Authors
item McQuate, Grant
item Sylva, Charmaine
item Jang, Eric

Submitted to: Journal of Applied Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 7, 2005
Publication Date: January 7, 2005
Citation: Mcquate, G.T., Sylva, C.D., Jang, E.B. 2005. Efficacy of suppression of mediterranean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) in a persimmon orchard through bait sprays in adjacent coffee plantings. Journal of Applied Entomology 129: 110-117.

Interpretive Summary: There has been a long history of oriental persimmon cultivation in Upper Kula on the island of Maui in Hawaii. One persistent problem facing persimmon growers has been loss through infestation by the Mediterranean fruit fly. This also prevents fruit export because there are, at present, no approved quarantine treatments for persimmon. Mediterranean fruit fly maintains its populations throughout the year in Kula through a succession of 'bridge' hosts, with the fly population moving from one host to another as each crop comes into season. Through support of the USDA-ARS Areawide Fruit Fly IPM project, Mediterranean fruit fly suppression trials were initiated using mass deployment of traps baited with a synthetic food-based bait, initiated in alternate host crops before the start of persimmon season. This system gave good results except for situations where there were adjacent plantings of coffee, a favored alternate host, which bore mature fruits before and during the persimmon season. To improve population suppression under such circumstances, we applied a spinosad-based bait spray to the coffee plants, starting before persimmon fruits became susceptible to sting damage. Mass-trapping was used concurrently, in both Spray and Control Sites, using traps baited with a synthetic food-based bait. The bait spray strongly suppressed the Mediterranean fruit fly population level and led to reduced infestation levels in both coffee cherries and persimmon fruits. Additionally, we found that naturally present biological control agents that target Mediterranean fruit fly (primarily Fopius arisanus) maintained their parasitization rate over the course of the suppression activities. These results suggest that synthetic food-based mass trapping, combined with spinosad-based bait sprays, are control components compatible with biological control elements and can be combined to develop an improved integrated pest management system for Mediterranean fruit fly.

Technical Abstract: Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki) cultivation in Upper Kula on the island of Maui in Hawaii has had a persistent problem of loss through infestation by the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Recent suppression trials we conducted using mass deployment of traps baited with a synthetic food-based bait, initiated in alternate host crops before the start of persimmon season, have shown promise as a means of reducing C. capitata population levels. The mass-trapping approach, however, did not adequately suppress the C. capitata population in cases where there were adjacent plantings of coffee (Coffea arabica), a favored alternate host, which bore mature fruits before and during the persimmon season. To improve C. capitata population suppression under such circumstances, we applied a spinosad-based bait spray to the coffee plants, starting before persimmon fruits became susceptible to sting damage. Mass-trapping was used concurrently, in both Spray and Control Sites, using traps baited with a synthetic food-based bait. The bait spray strongly suppressed the C. capitata population level and led to reduced infestation levels in both coffee cherries and persimmon fruits. Percentage parasitization of C. capitata in coffee cherries by established biological control agents (primarily Fopius arisanus), however, was not significantly different in control versus spray plots even after 11 weekly sprays. These results suggest that mass trapping, combined with spinosad-based bait sprays are control components compatible with biological control elements and can be combined to develop an improved integrated pest management system for C. capitata.

Last Modified: 7/23/2014
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