Submitted to: Proceedings Sunflower Research Workshop
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 2004
Publication Date: April 1, 2004
Citation: Jan, C.C., Miller, J.F., Vick, B.A. 2004. Yield trial evaluation of seven new cytoplasmic male-sterile lines from induced mutation and a native American variety. Proceedings Sunflower Research Workshop. Available: http://www.sunflowernsa.com/research/research-workshop/documents/175.pdf Interpretive Summary: The use of a single cytoplasm male-sterile (cms) cms PET1 cytoplasm and the Rf1 fertility restoration gene for hybrid sunflower production since the early 1970s makes the crop genetically vulnerable. One reason for not having other cms-fertility restoration systems is the inability to find stable and complete cms sources and corresponding strong fertility restoration genes. Of the 70 sunflower cms sources, only 19 have been reported to have Rf genes and are supported with inheritance studies. This report characterized six selected mutant cms HA 89 lines and cms PI 432513, and compared them to cmsHA 89, and all of which are shown to be suitable for sunflower hybrid breeding use.
Technical Abstract: Six mutant cms HA 89 lines, selected as sectorial cms on mutagen-treated HA 89 plants and maintained by pollinating with HA89, and cms PI 432513, derived from a native Indian variety and with the pedigree of cms PI 432513/HA 89 *4 were used as new cms sources. Male fertility of all mutant cms HA 89 lines and cms PI 432513 and the commercially used cms PET1 cytoplasm was completely restored by RHA 266, RHA 274, RHA 280, and RHA 296, suggesting Rf1 for fertility restoration. One yield trial included the six mutant cms HA 89 lines, cms PI 432513, and the classical cms PET1in a HA 89 background, and another trial included the F1 progenies of these eight cms lines pollinated with one oilseed restorer, RHA 274, and one confectionery restorer, RHA 294, were established in 2003 in the field at Fargo and Casselton, ND. The following data were analyzed: lodging %, days to flower, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter, yield, test weight, seed moisture content, and oil concentration. Since no significant differences were detected among the eight cms lines for most traits, therefore, these seven new cms lines are agronomically equal to the classical cms PET1. Similar interpretation for the parental cms lines can be used for the hybrids, and the F1 deviations involving the new cms lines are within the acceptable levels of most breeding programs. Based on one-year's results, the seven new cms appear equal, if not better, than the classical cms PET1 cytoplasm for hybrid sunflower production. The new cms lines are in H. annuus cytoplasm, but likely carry the same male sterility gene as that of the classical H. petiolaris cms used in commercial hybrid production. Since new restoration lines are not required, the new cms lines can be quickly utilized by the sunflower industry. Seeds of these new cms lines have been increased and will be released to the public in time for 2004 planting.