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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Mechanisms of Hopperburn: An Overview of Insect Taxonomy, Behavior and Physiology

Authors
item BACKUS, ELAINE
item Serrano, Miguel - MONSANTO CO, BOGOTA
item Ranger, Christopher - UNIV OF MO, COLUMBIA

Submitted to: Annual Review Of Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 15, 2004
Publication Date: December 16, 2004
Citation: Backus, E.A., Serrano, M.S., Ranger, C.M. 2004. Mechanisms of Hopperburn: An Overview of Insect Yaxonomy, Behavior and Physiology. Annual Review Of Entomology. 2005.50:125-51

Interpretive Summary: Hopperburn is a non-pathological disease of plants caused by the direct feeding damage of certain leafhoppers and planthoppers. Although long studied, especially with Empoasca spp. leafhoppers, the mechanisms underlying hopperburn have only recently been elucidated. Hopperburn is caused by a dynamic interaction between complex insect feeding stimuli (termed 'hopperburn initiation') and complex plant responses (termed 'the hopperburn cascade'). Herein we review the nature of the feeding stimuli in hopperburn initiation, especially for Empoasca spp. but also compared with the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Contrary to previous reports, Empoasca hopperburn is not solely caused by 'toxic' saliva. Instead, it is caused by a plant wound response triggered by a unique type of stylet movement, which is then exacerbated by saliva. Electrical penetration graph monitoring has revealed that certain tactics of feeding are more damaging than others. Measuring the proportions of the most damaging feeding led to development of a resistance index, the Stylet Penetration Index, which can predict hopperburn severity in different plants or under different environmental conditions, and can supplement or replace traditional, field-based resistance indices.

Technical Abstract: Hopperburn is a non-pathological disease of plants caused by the direct feeding damage of certain leafhoppers and planthoppers. Although long studied, especially with Empoasca spp. leafhoppers (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae), the mechanisms underlying hopperburn have only recently been elucidated. Hopperburn is caused by a dynamic interaction between complex insect feeding stimuli (termed 'hopperburn initiation') and complex plant responses (termed 'the hopperburn cascade'). Herein we review the nature of the feeding stimuli in hopperburn initiation, especially for Empoasca spp. but also compared with the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Contrary to previous reports, Empoasca hopperburn is not solely caused by 'toxic' saliva. Instead, it is caused by a plant wound response triggered by a unique type of stylet movement, which is then exacerbated by saliva. Electrical penetration graph monitoring has revealed that certain tactics of feeding are more damaging than others. Measuring the proportions of the most damaging feeding led to development of a resistance index, the Stylet Penetration Index, which can predict hopperburn severity in different plants or under different environmental conditions, and can supplement or replace traditional, field-based resistance indices.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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