Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 21, 2004
Publication Date: December 7, 2004
Citation: Ishida, B.K., Chapman, M.H. 2004. A Comparison of Carotenoid Content and Total Antioxidant Activity in Catsup from Several Commercial Sources in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 52. p. 8017-8020. Interpretive Summary: Samples of catsup from 13 commercial sources, representing at least ten U.S. manufacturers, were analyzed for carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and percentage solids. We tested catsup that we purchased from major supermarkets, organic food stores, a fast food restaurant and a vending machine. We found solids content of these catsup brands varying from 26% to 38% solids. The catsup having the highest lycopene content was more than three times greater than the catsup with the lowest amount of lycopene. The one having the highest total antioxidant capacity was more than twice as high as the one with the lowest activity. Overall, brands of catsup produced by organic food companies were darker red and had more lycopene and higher total antioxidant activities than the other brands tested. There was no correlation between solids content and quality among the different brands of catsup.
Technical Abstract: Samples of catsup from 13 commercial sources, representing at least ten U.S. manufacturers, were analyzed for carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and percentage solids. Solids content of these catsup brand samples varied from 26.31 to 38.06% solids. Lycopene content ranged from 59.42 to 183.36 micrograms and total carotenoids were as high as 216.6 micrograms/g fresh weight, respectively. In addition, both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities (HAA and LAA) were measured using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. These measurements of samples of the various catsup brands ranged from 176.5 to 356.8 total TEAC units.