|Kaplan, D. T. - USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST|
Submitted to: Phytopathology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: September 9, 2003
Publication Date: June 1, 2004
Citation: Gottwald, T.R., Kaplan, D. 2004. Mitigating the post-introduction impacts of new and emerging agricultural pathogens. Phytopathology. 94:S130. Technical Abstract: International travel and trade has greatly increased the introduction of plant pathogens. When introduced pathogens potentially have severe effects on valuable agrosystems and natural resources requiring state and federal regulatory responses. To ensure the most rapid and effective response to introduction, scientific studies are initiated to gain critical information for biologically sound pest mitigation. Responses to three pathogen introductions, citrus canker, plum pox virus, and <i>Ralstonia solanacearum</i>, are presented as case studies. Citrus canker, discovered in south Florida in 1994, resisted eradication attempts requiring a study that led to new regulations and eventually a 1900-ft law and development of a sentinel survey method used statewide. Over $500,000,000 has been spent to date and over 1.2 million trees removed to attempt to eradicate this pathogen. Plum pox virus was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1999 and Ontario, Canada in 2000, requiring several studies that have lead to improved state, national, and NAPPO survey methods and standards, eradication protocols, and rapid pathogen detection and differentiation. <i>R. solanacearum</i> race 3 biovar 2, a severe pathogen of solanaceous crops, was discovered in 2003 in imported geraniums, resulting in quarantines of commercial nurseries and studies to enhance sampling, detection, and disease suppression and eradication efforts.