Submitted to: Rice Chemistry and Technology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2003
Publication Date: March 1, 2004
Citation: Yokoyama, W.H. Book Chapter, 3rd Edition, Rice: Chemistry and Technology, 2004, Edited by E.T. Champagne. Chapter 20:595-609. Interpretive Summary: This book chapter is part of the new rice reference book, 3rd Edition of Rice: Chemistry and Technology, published by the American Association of Cereal Chemists. Our knowledge of the macronutrient nutrient properties of rice remains essentially unchanged since the previous edition. However, the nutritional status of people in developed countries has changed. The chapter focuses on the role of rice and rice bran in cardiovascular disease, colon cancer and diabetes.
Technical Abstract: The nutritional composition of rice and its fundamental importance as the major source of caloric energy and protein to most of the population of Asia remains essentially unchanged since the second edition of Rice: Chemistry and Technology published in 1985. However, our comprehension of the structure and organization of starch, protein and other components of rice as related to human nutrition has been extended to include health promotion and disease prevention, in addition to sustenance. As we begin the twenty-first century we recognize that obesity and problems of over-nutrition, rather than inadequate nutrition, have become epidemic in developed countries. A review of the literature concerning the glycemic properties of rice and its relationship to diabetes is included in this chapter, because diabetes is increasing as the living standards of rice-consuming Asian countries improve. In the past ten years, the role of plant sterols in reducing human plasma cholesterol has become widely accepted. This chapter provides an overview of rice phytonutrients and other components that contribute to the hypocholesterolemic properties of rice bran and its oil. These phytonutrients and structural features of the grain may also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes; this chapter highlights relevant research findings.