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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Mineral Elements Related to Cardiovascular Health

Authors
item Klevay, Leslie
item Combs, Gerald

Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: August 19, 2004
Publication Date: December 1, 2004
Citation: Klevay, L.M., Combs, G.F. 2003. Mineral elements related to cardiovascular health. Proceedings of the World Health Organization Workshop, Rome, Italy, November 11-13, 2003.

Interpretive Summary: In general, heart disease risk is low where drinking water is hard and is higher where the water is soft. New methods of water purification make it possible to provide clean water that is nearly free of minerals or with small amounts of calcium and magnesium providing some hardness. We suggest that these elements in drinking water can improve cholesterol metabolism and cardiac rhythm as direct nutritional benefits. Calcium and magnesium also can have indirect benefits on health because they block absorption of cadmium and lead; these latter elements are potential environmental toxins.

Technical Abstract: In general, heart disease risk is low where drinking water is hard and is higher where the water is soft. New methods of water purification make it possible to provide clean water that is nearly free of minerals or with small amounts of calcium and magnesium providing some hardness. We suggest that these elements in drinking water can improve cholesterol metabolism and cardiac rhythm as direct nutritional benefits. Calcium and magnesium also can have indirect benefits on health because they block absorption of cadmium and lead; these latter elements are potential environmental toxins.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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