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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Objectives of Sugar Beet Breeding, Resistance to Parasites, Fungi, Black Root.

Author
item Panella, Leonard

Submitted to: Genetics and Breeding of Sugar Beet
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: December 15, 2003
Publication Date: May 1, 2005
Citation: Panella, L.W. 2005. Objectives of sugar beet breeding, Resistance to Parasites, Fungi, Black root. pp. 101-102. In (eds. E. Biancardi, L. G. Campbell, G. N. Skaracis, & M. De Biaggi) Genetics and Breeding of Sugar Beet. Science Publishers, Inc. Enfield (NH), USA. 2005 (Book Chapter)

Interpretive Summary: Black root disease occurs as both a seedling disease (damping off) and later as a chronic root rot of the mature root. Black root (the chronic rot in the mature root) is often part of a root rot complex that can include Fusarium yellows and Rhizoctonia root rot. This disease is serious in parts of the United States, especially in eastern North Dakota, Minnesota and Texas, but can be a problem in most growing areas. It has been reported in Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Hungary, the UK, Russia, Eastern Europe and former allied states, and Japan. Early progress in breeding was slow when using mass selection in infested fields. C. L. Schneider and G. E. Coe together developed a greenhouse screening method for determining seedling resistance to Aphanomyces black root, which also was resistance to rot of the mature root. This breeding program is still active at the USDA-ARS station in East Lansing, MI. Today, many commercial breeding companies have Aphanomyces resistance breeding programs. This resistance is primarily against the chronic rot in the mature root because, in most cases, the seedling damping off is controlled by chemical application on the seed at planting. Outside of the U.S.A., there also are active breeding programs for Aphanomyces resistance in Russia and in Japan, where Aphanomyces is considered a very serious problem.

Technical Abstract: The oomycete, Aphanomyces cochlioides Drechs., is responsible for black root disease, which occurs as both an acute seedling disease (damping off) and later as a chronic root rot of the mature root. Black root (the chronic rot in the mature root) is often part of a root rot complex that can include Fusarium yellows and Rhizoctonia root rot. This disease is serious in parts of the United States, especially in eastern North Dakota, Minnesota and Texas, but can be a problem in most growing areas. It has been reported in Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Hungary, the UK, Russia, Eastern Europe and former allied states, and Japan. Early research by the USDA indicated resistance was dominant, as expressed in an experimental hybrid; however progress in breeding was slow when using mass selection in infested fields. C. L. Schneider and G. E. Coe together developed a greenhouse screening method for determining seedling resistance to Aphanomyces black root, which also was correlated with resistance to rot of the mature root. This breeding program is still active at the USDA-ARS station in East Lansing, MI. Today, many commercial breeding companies have Aphanomyces resistance breeding programs. This resistance is primarily against the chronic rot in the mature root because, in most cases, the seedling damping off is controlled by chemical application on the seed at planting. Aphanomyces, as a part of a larger root rot syndrome, has been an increasing problem in the Central High Plains of North America In Europe, where Aphanomyces causing seedling damping off has been the most important manifestation of the disease, the mature root rot has been a sporadic (local) problem, observed mainly under wet weather conditions as were seen in the last few years in The Netherlands, Moldavia, Poland and Germany. Outside of the U.S.A., there also are active breeding programs for Aphanomyces resistance in Russia and in Japan, where Aphanomyces is considered a very serious problem.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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