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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Novak, John
item Call, Jeffrey
item Wallace, Frederick
item Tomasula, Peggy
item Luchansky, John

Submitted to: International Association for Food Protection
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: February 1, 2004
Publication Date: August 12, 2004
Citation: Novak, J.S., Call, J.E., Wallace, F.M., Tomasula, P.M., Luchansky, J.B. 2004. The efficiency of conventional pasterurization temperatures on Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) spores in water, media, and milk [Abstract]. International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting. P167.

Technical Abstract: Although the likelihood of natural contamination of milk with B. anthracis from infected animals is small, there is potential for purposeful addition of spores to bulk milk exceeding 1,000,000 spores/ml. High temperature-short time (HTST) pasteurization at the legal minimum time and temperature condition (72oC for 15 sec), or at higher temperatures and longer times (78oC for 30 sec), or at ultra-high temperature pasteurization (130oC for 1-2 sec) have been successful in reducing levels of vegetative cells of pathogens in milk, but may be ineffective against heat resistant spores. The decimal reduction times (D-values) for B. anthracis (Sterne) spores inoculated to 1,000,000,00 spores/ml in dH2O, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth, or skim milk (SM) were calculated at these pasteurization temperatures. Pasteurization at 72oC was ineffective (< 1log10 CFU/ml reduction) in reducing spore viability for B. anthracis (Sterne) in all 3 test fluids for treatments up to 90 min. The D values at 78 C were estimated at 115.4 + 32.3 min for spores in dH2O, 612.9 + 431.5 min for spores in BHI, and 640.3 + 513.3 min for spores in SM. As evidenced by D values at 130C of 0.7 + 0.2 min for spores in dH2O, 0.9 + 0.3 min for spores in BHI, and 1.1 + 0.1 min for spores in SM, respectively, ultra-high pasteurization conditions were also found to be inadequate for inactivating spores. In related studies, spores from B. cereus ATCC strains 14579 and 9818, representative aerobic spore-forming bacteria found in milk, were similar to B. anthracis (Sterne) in their thermal resistance.

Last Modified: 11/30/2015
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