Submitted to: Journal of the Mosquito Control Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2005
Publication Date: September 1, 2005
Citation: Allan, S.A., Bernier, U.R., Kline, D.L. 2005. Evaluation of oviposition substrates and organic infusions on collection of culex in florida. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 21(3):268-273. Interpretive Summary: With the recent introduction and subsequent spread of West Nile across the United States, the vector mosquitoes, have been targeted for disease surveillance and mosquito control programs. Critical to these efforts are accurate methods for sampling mosquito populations. Conventional light traps, however, are of limited value and traps designed to catch egg-laying (gravid) females are the preferred method for trapping these mosquitoes. Scientists at USDA's Center for Medical, Veterinary and Agricultural Entomology, Gainesville, FL various baits or organic materials for gravid female traps to determine the most effective for trapping. Traps baited with cow manure, Bermuda hay, oak leaves, cattail leaves, and water from a dairy wastewater lagoon collected the largest numbers of mosquitoes. All of these baits were highly effective for trapping several species of Culex. This research provides important information for mosquito control, public health, agricultural and state veterinarian agencies for increased trapping efficacy for Culex mosquitoes.
Technical Abstract: Gravid female traps are commonly used for both arbovirus surveillance and population surveillance of Culex vectors of West Nile virus. Oviposition substrates, used as baits in these traps, were tested against Culex mosquitoes in laboratory and field conditions. All substrates tested as 1% and 10% dilutions in two-choice bioassays in the laboratory against Cx. quinquefasciatus females were more effective than water controls in eliciting oviposition. Strongest responses were obtained in response to dilutions of dairy effluent, followed by larval water and infusions of alfalfa hay, alfalfa pellets, Bermuda hay, oak leaves and Typha leaves with lowest responses to steer manure infusion. In the field, few significant differences in collections were obtained between traps baited with different infusions. Significantly more Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus were collected in traps baited with steer manure infusion (highest) compared to alfalfa hay infusion (lowest). Responses of Cx. quinquefasciatus to dairy effluent, and infusions of Bermuda hay, oak leaves and Typha leaves were not significantly different from either steer manure infusion or alfalfa hay infusion. Responses of Cx. nigripalpus were highest to steer manure infusion, equally low to infusions of alfalfa hay and Typha leaves and moderate responses to dairy effluent, and infusions of Bermuda hay and oak leaves. Gravid females comprised from 66.7 to 81.9% of the average trap collection for each infusion type with no significant difference between infusions.