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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Collection of Arachis Germplasm in Paraguay for Forage Crop Improvement: Phase 1

Authors
item Williams, Mary
item Pittman, Roy
item Pizarro, E. - URUGUAY
item Caballero, P. - PARAGUAY

Submitted to: Tropical Pastures
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 26, 2004
Publication Date: July 26, 2004
Citation: Williams, M.J., Pittman, R.N., Pizarro, E., Caballero, P.J. 2004. Collection of arachis germplasm in paraguay for forage crop improvement: phase 1. Tropical Pastures. 26(3):70-75.

Interpretive Summary: Wild relatives of the edible peanut have proved useful as forages for the Gulf Coastal Region of the US. Many of the forage type peanuts do not produce seed, so traditional plant breeding methods cannot be utilized to improve existing material. Better adapted peanut material for forage and turf uses may exist in the wild in South America where peanuts are native. In 2002, a plant collection expedition was funded through the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Exchange Office (PEO) to collect wild and domesticated relatives of the peanut in Paraguay, a country with a large number of wild peanut relatives. Over 3000 miles were covered in parts of nine departments (states) in the central and south central portion of the country and 64 plants were collected. Much of the perennial material appeared to show great potential as ornamental or low maintenance turf species. In particular, plants from Paraguarí and Misiones Departments may hold potential as forage material for wetter sites in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. An illustrated version of the trip report can be found at: www.pasturasdeamerica.com/relatos/paraguay1.asp (verified 27 Sep. 2003).

Technical Abstract: In 2002, a plant collection expedition funded through the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Exchange Office (PEO) and in collaboration with the Minsterio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asunción, Paraguay, was conducted. Sixty-four accessions of wild and domesticated Arachis, which are thought to represent six known species, were collected. Over 5000 km were covered in parts of nine departments in the central and south central portion of the country. Much of the perennial material appeared to show great potential as ornamental or low maintenance turf species. In particular, the A. lignosa and A. microsperma collected in Concepción Department and the A. glabrata collected in Paraguarí and Misiones Departments may hold potential as forage material for wetter sites in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This field work also represents the first widely reported occurrence of extensive (>200 ha) areas of both A. glabrata and A. microsperma in single contiguous naturally occurring populations under grazing. We also observed, that as with any rapidly developing country, considerable evidence that conversion of native vegetation to pasture and farmland were impacting Arachis populations in this region of the country. The collection was divided, and a portion of the material remained in Paraguay under the control of the host country collaborator, Pedro Juan Caballero, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia (MAG). All the collection numbers and herbarium identification should be proceeded with these initials: CbWlPmPz. An illustrated version of the trip report can be found at: www.pasturasdeamerica.com/relatos/paraguay1.asp (verified 27 Sep. 2003).

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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