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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Assessment of Iron Bioavailability from 20 Elite Late-Maturing Tropical Maize Varieties Using An in Vitro Digestion/caco-2 Cell Model

Authors
item Oikeh, S - IITA
item Menkir, A - IITA
item Maziya-Dixon, B - IITA
item Welch, Ross
item Glahn, Raymond

Submitted to: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 6, 2004
Publication Date: June 18, 2004
Citation: Oikeh, S.O., Menkir, A., Maziya-Dixon, B., Welch, R.M., Glahn, R.P. 2004. Assessment of iron bioavailability from 20 elite late-maturing tropical maize varieties using an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 84:1202-1206.

Interpretive Summary: In West and Central Africa, iron deficiency anemia is a major health concern, resulting in human suffering of immense proportions. A sustainable and cost-effective way to alleviate these problems is by developing more bioavailable iron in staple food crops such as maize that comprise a major part of the diet. With this goal in mind, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used to assess iron bioavailability of 20 elite late-maturing tropical maize varieties grown in three diverse agroecologies in West and Central Africa (WCA). Kernel-iron concentration of the varieties, averaged across locations, varied from 19.2 to 24.4 mg kg-1. Significant differences in iron bioavailability were observed among varieties. Mean bioavailable Fe ranged between 14% below and 43% above the reference control variety, TZB-SR. Variety DMR-LSR-Y with the highest kernel-iron concentration of 24.4 mg kg-1 across the three locations had a similar bioavailable iron as the reference control, TZB-SR. The most promising varieties were Mid-altitude STR Synthetic and ACR91SUWAN-1-SRC1. They had kernel-iron levels of 22-24 mg kg-1 and bioavailable iron of 24-36% higher than the reference control, TZB-SR. These samples provide a good starting point for research in this area, identifying baseline levels of content and bioavailability that need to be enhanced through additional research efforts. Additional research is necessary to determine if the increases in bioavailable Fe observed in these studies can significantly improve the Fe status of individuals in WCA at risk for Fe deficiency.

Technical Abstract: An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used to assess iron bioavailability of 20 elite late-maturing tropical maize varieties grown in three diverse agroecologies in West and Central Africa (WCA). Kernel-iron concentration of the varieties, averaged across locations, varied from 19.2 to 24.4 mg kg-1. Significant differences in iron bioavailability were observed among varieties. Mean bioavailable Fe ranged between 14% below and 43% above the reference control variety, TZB-SR. Variety DMR-LSR-Y with the highest kernel-iron concentration of 24.4 mg kg-1 across the three locations had a similar bioavailable iron as the reference control, TZB-SR. The most promising varieties were Mid-altitude STR Synthetic and ACR91SUWAN-1-SRC1. They had kernel-iron levels of 22-24 mg kg-1 and bioavailable iron of 24-36% higher than the reference control, TZB-SR. These samples provide a good starting point for research in this area, identifying baseline levels of content and bioavailability that need to be enhanced through additional research efforts.

Last Modified: 11/22/2014