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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Detection of Campylobacter Or Salmonella: Turkey Semen and the Ability of Poultry Semen Extenders to Reduce Thier Concentratons

Authors
item Donoghue, Ann
item Blore, Pam - UNIV OF ARKANSAS
item Cole, Kim - UNIV OF ARKANSAS
item Luskutoff, N - UNIV OF ARKANSAS
item Donoghue, Dan - UNIV OF ARKANSAS

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 15, 2004
Publication Date: September 29, 2004
Citation: Donoghue, A.M., Blore, P.J., Cole, K., Luskutoff, N.M., Donoghue, D.J. 2004. Detection of Campylobacter or Salmonella: Turkey semen and the ability of poultry semen extenders to reduce thier concentratons. Poultry Science. 83:1728-1733.

Interpretive Summary: Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most commonly reported pathogens causing food borne infections in the United States and recent evidence has demonstrated the vertical transmission of Campylobacter between broiler breeder flocks and commercial broilers. Semen collection, by nature of the toms' anatomy, is predisposed to fecal contamination. Because semen on turkey farms is pooled and then used to inseminate multiple hens, contaminated semen could easily spread these pathogens throughout entire flocks via artificial insemination. The objective of this study was to: 1) evaluate turkey semen collected randomly from commercial turkey farms to determine if food borne pathogens were present in the semen, and 2) if present, evaluate the efficacy of semen extenders to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter and Salmonella enteritidis from semen. To determine the prevalence on commercial farms, semen was collected from randomized pools of ejaculates from turkey toms from six flocks in the first study. Semen diluents containing different antibiotics were tested to determine if pathogens could be eliminated from the ejaculates. Many different bacteria including Salmonella and Campylobacter were identified in turkey semen. One of the flocks tracked for seven weeks consistently tested positive for Campylobacter. Commercially available poultry semen extenders containing antibiotics were not effective against Campylobacter in turkey semen in this study. Wild-type Campylobacter isolated from turkey semen and ceca were more susceptible to an antibiotic cocktail. Because turkey semen has not been considered a source for pathogenic bacteria, antibacterial diluents for these pathogens have not been developed or tested for efficacy against human food borne pathogens.

Technical Abstract: Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most commonly reported pathogens causing food borne infections in the United States and recent evidence has demonstrated the vertical transmission of Campylobacter between broiler breeder flocks and commercial broilers. Semen collection, by nature of the toms' anatomy, is predisposed to fecal contamination. Because semen on turkey farms is pooled and then used to inseminate multiple hens, contaminated semen could easily spread these pathogens throughout entire flocks via artificial insemination. The objective of this study was to: 1) evaluate turkey semen collected randomly from commercial turkey farms to determine if food borne pathogens were present in the semen, and 2) if present, evaluate the efficacy of semen extenders to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter and Salmonella enteritidis from semen. To determine the prevalence on commercial farms, semen was collected from randomized pools of ejaculates from 10-30 toms/farm from six flocks in the first study. For study 2, pooled ejaculates were aliquoted into treatments containing: Extender 1 no antibiotic; Extender 2 gentamicin; Extender 3 gentamicin and tylosin; Extender 4 enrofloxacin; or Extender 5 a cocktail of gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin, kanamycin, spectinomycin. Aliquots were challenged with C. jejuni (ATCC strain 33291) in triplicate trials. In a third and fourth study, wild-type Campylobacters isolated from turkey semen or ceca were also evaluated. Pseudomona aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and hermannii, Staphylococcus lentus, Salmonella and Campylobacter were identified in turkey semen. One of the flocks tracked for seven weeks consistently tested positive for Campylobacter, which has been further identified as C. coli, and Salmonella enteritidis was identified in two of the flocks tracked. In Study 2, Campylobacter counts were consistently reduced by two or more logs with Extender 5 but there were no differences in counts between the control extender and any of the other extenders containing antibiotics for the C. jejuni challenged groups. Salmonella counts were reduced by a log with Extender 2 and 5 for all trials but was inconsistent with other combinations of antibiotics. In the third study, antibiotics in Extender 5 resulted in a one log reduction for the ATCC C. jejuni after challenge, and wild-type Campylobacters were reduced (range of two to six log reduction ) compared to control. In Study 4, combinations of antibiotics in Extender 5 were effective in reducing wild-type Campylobacter levels. Commercially available poultry semen extenders containing antibiotics (Extenders 1-3) were not effective against C. jejuni in turkey semen in this study. Wild-type Campylobacter isolated from turkey semen and ceca were more susceptible to an antibiotic cocktail in vitro (Extender 5) compared to the ATCC strain of C. jejuni. Because turkey semen has not been considered a source for pathogenic bacteria, antibacterial diluents for these pathogens have not been developed or tested for efficacy against human food borne pathogens.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014
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