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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Granular Activated Carbons from Broiler Manure: Physical, Chemical and Adsorptive Properties

Authors
item Lima, Isabel
item Marshall, Wayne

Submitted to: Bioresource Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 25, 2004
Publication Date: November 23, 2004
Citation: Lima, I.M., Marshall, W.E. 2005. Granular activated carbons from broiler manure: physical, chemical and adsorptive properties. Bioresource Technology. 96(6):699-706.

Interpretive Summary: Broiler manure produced at large concentrated facilities still poses risks to the quality of water and public health. Current approaches, such as land application, burning for fuel recovery or land-filling, produce low-value alternatives. The conversion of broiler manure to activated carbons for environmental remediation is a value-added application and a profitable alternative. This study utilizes broiler manure as source material for granular activated carbon, GAC production and optimizes conditions for its production. Pelletized manure samples were pyrolyzed at 700°C for 1 hr followed by activation in an inert atmosphere under steam at different water flow rates, for a period ranging from 15 to 75 minutes. Best overall performing carbon was steam activated for 45 minutes at 3 ml/min. Experimental carbons were compared to two commercial carbons with enhanced metal binding ability to determine their efficacy relative to the commercial samples. These comparative studies indicated that the broiler manure based carbon surpassed both commercial samples, by having the highest copper ion adsorption capacity. The low cost and high availability of large quantities of animal manure generated at CAFs, make them an attractive feedstock for carbon production. This, coupled with excellent adsorption capacity for metal ions, represents an attractive solution and endeavor to both the farmers and the activated carbon manufacturers.

Technical Abstract: Broiler manure produced at large concentrated facilities poses risks to the quality of water and public health. Current approaches for its utilization, such as land application, burning for fuel recovery or land-filling, produce low-value alternatives. The conversion of broiler manure to activated carbons for environmental remediation is a value-added application and a profitable alternative. This study utilizes broiler litter and cake as source materials for granular activated carbon, GAC production and optimizes conditions for their production. Pelletized manure samples were pyrolyzed at 700°C for 1 hr followed by activation in an inert atmosphere under steam at different water flow rates, for a period ranging from 15 to 75 minutes. Carbon physical and adsorptive properties were dependent on activation time and quantity of steam used as activant, yields varied from 18% to 28%, surface area varied from 9 to 449 m2/g and copper ion adsorption varied from 0.3 to 1.92 mmoles Cu2+/g carbon. Best overall performing carbons (cake and litter based) were steam activated for 45 minutes at 3 ml/min water flow rate. Experimental carbons were compared to two commercial carbons with enhanced metal binding ability to determine their efficacy relative to the commercial samples. These comparative studies indicated that the broiler cake based carbon surpassed both commercial samples, by having the highest copper ion adsorption capacity.

Last Modified: 11/28/2014
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